The advent of Louis-Philippe: the official story

The advent of Louis-Philippe: the official story

  • Arrival of the Duke of Orleans at the Palais-Royal.

    CARBILLET Jean-Baptiste (1804 - 1869)

  • Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans, leaves the Palais Royal to go to the town hall of Paris.

    VERNET Horace or Emile-Jean-Horace (1789 - 1863)

  • Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, arrives at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris

    FERON Eloi-Firmin (1802 - 1876)

  • Reading at the town hall of Paris of the declaration of the deputies and the proclamation of the Duke of Orleans

    GERARD, Baron François (1770 - 1837)

Arrival of the Duke of Orleans at the Palais-Royal.

© Photo RMN-Grand Palais - G. Blot

To close

Title: Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans, leaves the Palais Royal to go to the town hall of Paris.

Author : VERNET Horace or Emile-Jean-Horace (1789 - 1863)

Creation date : 1832

Date shown: July 31, 1830

Dimensions: Height 215 - Width 261.5

Technique and other indications: Oil on canvas.Full title: Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans, appointed lieutenant general of the kingdom, left the Palais Royal on horseback to go to the town hall of Paris on July 31, 1830.

Storage location: National Museum of the Palace of Versailles (Versailles) website

Contact copyright: © Photo RMN-Grand Palais - G. Blot

Picture reference: 97DE457 / MV 5185

Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans, leaves the Palais Royal to go to the town hall of Paris.

© Photo RMN-Grand Palais - G. Blot

To close

Title: Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, arrives at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris

Author : FERON Eloi-Firmin (1802 - 1876)

Creation date : 1837

Date shown: July 31, 1830

Dimensions: Height 122 - Width 149

Technique and other indications: Oil on canvas.Full title: Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, appointed lieutenant general of the Kingdom, arrives at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris Reduced from the original painting by Larivière

Storage location: National Museum of the Palace of Versailles (Versailles) website

Contact copyright: © Photo RMN-Grand Palaissite web

Picture reference: 85DE866 / MV 5796

Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, arrives at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris

© Photo RMN-Grand Palais

To close

Title: Reading at the town hall of Paris of the declaration of the deputies and the proclamation of the Duke of Orleans

Author : GERARD, Baron François (1770 - 1837)

Creation date : 1836

Date shown: July 31, 1830

Dimensions: Height 550 - Width 442

Technique and other indications: Oil on canvas.Full title: Reading at the town hall of Paris of the declaration of the deputies and the proclamation of the Duke of Orleans, lieutenant general of the kingdom.

Storage location: National Museum of the Palace of Versailles (Versailles) website

Contact copyright: © Photo RMN-Grand Palais - D. Arnaudet / J. Schormans website

Picture reference: 83EE209 / MV 2786

Reading at the town hall of Paris of the declaration of the deputies and the proclamation of the Duke of Orleans

© Photo RMN-Grand Palais - D. Schormans

Publication date: March 2016

Historical context

At the end of the revolution of 1830 caused by the publication of iniquitous ordinances [1], Charles X abdicated. The Duke of Orleans accepts the lieutenant general of the kingdom.

The images of this accession to power are abundant because the future Louis-Philippe will quickly order several paintings devoted to the “Three Glorious Years [2]”. The July iconography will also be exhibited on everyday objects - card games, tobacco pouches, bottles of liquor, dishes - likely to leave an imprint on people's consciences.

Image Analysis

The four canvases form a suite. Their authors, who were not in Paris during the unrest [3], recount the trajectory of the Duke of Orleans, from his property in Neuilly to the Hôtel de Ville.

Arrival of the Duke of Orleans at the Palais-Royal

The hero arrives at his Parisian home at night, entering discreetly through a house in rue Saint-Honoré which is part of the Palais-Royal [4]. A dead horse in the foreground, guns on the ground, the remains of a barricade guarded by commoners, the warm tones of the painting - orange and burgundy of the lights, red of the stalls - recall the days of insurrection that preceded.

Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans, appointed lieutenant general of the kingdom, left the Palais-Royal on horseback to go to the Hôtel de Ville in Paris, July 31, 1830

The next morning, the Duke set off on horseback [5] for the town hall, only escorted by a few officers of the National Guard and deputies who had come at dawn to talk to him. Caps, bicorn hat and raised top hats express the great unanimity of Parisians. Everything in the painting also suggests appeasement: gray-blue [6] shades of the Palais-Royal, the presence of a woman holding her swaddled baby in her arms and another, in a headdress, with a basket .

Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans, appointed Lieutenant General of the Kingdom, arrives at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris

The duke, now at the head of a more imposing procession [7], arrives in Place de Grève where the workers, national guards, students and bourgeois who have come with their families acclaim in unison.

Reading at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris of the declaration by the deputies and the proclamation of the Duke of Orleans, lieutenant general of the kingdom

This providential man can now enter the large gallery of the Town Hall to listen - with his right hand on his chest and his gaze riveted on the Declaration of Human Rights - Jean Viennet [8] deliver the declaration of the deputies.

In these four paintings, the tricolor, a sign of political renaissance, also takes center stage. The whole composition is organized around banners which form geometric patterns, which slam on the windows of houses and the Town Hall, which float at the top of the barricade and on the north tower of Notre-Dame, banners including the workers how the bourgeois proudly hold the pole and skilfully compose the clothes of the characters, Louis-Philippe in the lead with his white pants, his short bluish jacket, his saddle or his red scarf.

Interpretation

In this official story, fabricated by the victors, links are missing and scenes are watered down. No one painted, upstream, the inglorious route of Raincy - where the Duke had withdrawn for fear of being arrested on the orders of Charles X - until Neuilly.

Contrary to what the pictures show us, not all Parisians were in favor of an English-style parliamentary monarchy. If Louis-Philippe was acclaimed around his home, as he approached the Town Hall, the cries of "Vive la Liberté!" "Dominated those of" Long live the Duke of Orleans! And witnesses heard the cry: "No more Bourbons!" "

The central idea of ​​iconography is to prove that 1830 was the opposite of 1793: a clean revolution, without looting and almost without deaths, where freedom was obtained through the union of classes. The wounded painted on canvas are therefore light, and the paving stones are neat, without powder or dust. The bourgeois, the polytechnician and the worker (sometimes accompanied by a boy) form an inseparable trio, in an agreed pose.

But these works of “propaganda” nevertheless leave room for ambiguities. The tricolor is responsible for expressing the reconciliation of Bonapartists and Republicans. However, Vernet places at the center of his composition the banner of the First Republic - where the order of colors is red-white-blue -, not that of the First Empire.

Painters, following the Vulgate, overestimate the role of the National Guards, who in fact only intervened late [9] and primarily to maintain order. But they place these men as a primer, therefore withdrawn from the event, literally framing the web like the insurgents. And their crisp uniform [10] says they fought little, unlike the workers, with bandaged hands or feet and stained clothing.

In addition, in Gérard's painting (4), the three heroes of July are no longer standing proudly side by side, their gaze turned in the same direction. When Louis-Philippe is about to take the oath, not only are the worker and his two children thrown to the bottom of the field, but their features are incomplete.

  • Orleans (of)
  • Paris city hall
  • revolutionary days
  • Louis Philippe
  • Palais-Royal
  • Paris
  • propaganda
  • Revolution of 1830

Bibliography

Claire CONSTANS, "Versailles, large orders", in 1815-1830. The romantic years, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes, Meeting of national museums, 1995, p. 86-93.

Mathilde LARRERE-LOPEZ, “The National Guard of the Three Glorious Years. Heroic fighter or heroic figure ”, Companies & Representations, no 8, dec. 1999, p. 163-185.

David PINKNEY, The Revolution of 1830 in France, Paris, PUF, 1988.

Notes

1. Orders published in The monitor of July 25 and establishing a rigorous censorship of the press, dissolving the newly elected Chamber of Deputies, modifying the electoral system in favor of conservative candidates, organizing new elections.

2. Particularly for the future Batailles de Versailles gallery, which will be inaugurated in 1837 and in which the paintings will range from the Battle of Tolbiac to the Revolution of 1830.

3. Horace Vernet, author of the first two paintings, is in Rome where he directs the French Academy. Gérard and Larivière left Paris, scorching hot.

4. Home where he has lived since his return from exile in 1817 and which communicates with number 216 rue Saint-Honoré.

5. The aptly named Clio mare.

6. The canvas in fact draws three horizontal bands which decline, but in pastel, the three colors of the national flag: gray-blue of the building, white of the paving stones, orange of the earth.

7. Baron Laffitte is recognized in one of the two carriages following the Duke of Orleans.

8. Member of Parliament for Hérault, chosen for his "superb voice". The Duke of Orleans is surrounded by La Fayette, the municipal commissioners and the deputies.

9. During the day of July 28, quai Voltaire and quai des Augustins, at the Hôtel de Ville.

10. Composed of buffalo, a Greek bonnet, saber and pistol.

To cite this article

Myriam TSIKOUNAS, "The advent of Louis-Philippe: the official story"


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