General Alava AG-5 - History

General Alava AG-5 - History

General Alava

A former name retained.

(AG-5: dp. 1,390, lbp. 212'6", b. 28'3"; dr. 13', s. 10.5 k.;
epl. 76; a. 1 6-pdr., 2 3-pdrs.)

General Alava was built in 1895 by A. McMillan & Sons, Dumbarton, Scotland; captured during the Spanish-American War, transferred from the War Department to the Navy 21 February 1900, commissioned at Cavite, P.I., 9 March 1900, Et. Comdr. C. E. Fox in command.

General Alava served in the Philippines as a transport and lighthouse tender- She transported marines between various garrisons in the Philippines, making a voyage to Guam November 1900 to return survivors of Yosemite, lost at sea during a typhoon, to Cavite. Following a tour of the Archipelago with the Army Board for selection of a leper colony site, she carried a Naval Observatory party to Pendang, Sumatra, to observe a partial eclipse of the sun 16 May 1901. During 3-26 September 1901, she cruised with Read Admiral a. c. Remey on inspection of the southern islands. She carried Governor William Howard Taft from Manila to Singapore and back, 5-22 August 1902. The transport again sailed from Manila 29 October, transporting a Forestry Commission to the southern islands, Northern Luzon, Formosa and Nagasaki. Japan. She returned to Subic Bay 30 December and decommissioned at Cavite 24 January 1903.

General Alava recommissioned 11 June 1904 for transport service between the islands until May 1905 when she departed for the coast of China. She returned to Cavite from Shanghai 21 November 1905 ad decommisioned 26 February 1906.

General Alava recommissioned 18 December 1906. She was largely used to carry passengers between Cavite and Olongapo until February 1925. This service was interrupted ( May-November 1919) by a cruise to Batavia, Saigon, and Celebes to show the flag. With the assignment of hull classification and numbers to ships in 1920, she was designated a miscellaneous auxiliary ( AG-5) . The transport departed Manila 18 February 1923 once again to show the flag at Batavia and Saigon and to proceed via Hong Kong to Shanghai, arriving 24 April.

For the next 2 years General Alava carried passengers between Chinese ports, twice returning to the Philippines for brief visits. In several inspection cruises from Shanghai, she carried the Asiatic Fleet Commander to such ports as Dairen, Chefoo, Tsingtao, Tientsin, and Chinwangtao On 24 August 1927 she became receiving ship at Shanghai for transient officers of the Yangtze Patrol and from time to time made inspection trips along the river. She returned from her last cruise on the river to Nanking 3 June 1929 and decommissioned at Shanghai 28 June 1929. Her hulk was used as target during gunnery practice off the Asiatic coast and sunk 17 July 1929.


By Patrick McSherry

Please Visit our Home Page to learn more about the Spanish American War

GENERAL:

BACKGROUND:

During the Spanish American War, the GENERAL ALAVA was used to transport Spanish troops, but was captured by American forces. On February 21, 1900, she was commissioned by the United States Navy.

GENERAL ALAVA's initial duties included ferrying U.S. Marines as needed in the Philippines to support efforts to put down the Insurrection. Her other early duties were quite varied - she travelled to Guam to bring back survivors from the YOSEMITE, lost in a typhoon, made a tour of the Philippines to aid in choosing a site for a leper colony, and transported a naval observatory party to Sumatra. The vessel served to with Admiral Remey on a tour of southern islands, and transported Governor (later U.S. President) William Howard Taft from Singapore to Manila and back in August, 1902. Before being decommissioned, she also transported a forestry commission to various areas in the philippines and then to Japan. She was decommissioned on January 24, 1903.

In 1904, GENERAL ALAVA was recommissioned for transport service in the Philippines, and was also sent to Shanghai, Japan. She was again decommissioned on February 26, 1906. On December 18, 1906, she was recommissioned again, carrying passengers between Cavite, and Olongapo until February 1925. During this tme, the vessel made several cruises to show the flag to Batavia, Saigon, and Celebes.

In February 1925, the aging vessel was ordered to Shanghai, by way of Batavia, Saigon, and Hong Kong. She arrived at Shanghai on April 24, 1925. Here she resumed her duties of carrying passengers, this time between Chinese ports, only returning to the Philippines twice. She carried the commander of the U.S. Asiatic fleet on several inspection tours. On August 24, 1927, GENERAL ALAVA became the receiving ship for officers of the Yangtze Patrol, making several cruises up the Yangtze.

The final cruise of the GENERAL ALAVA on the Yangtze ended at Nanking on on June 3, 1929. She was used for target practice and was sunk on July 17, 1929.

TECHNOTES:

Classification:
Transport
Completed:
1895
Armament:
Two 70mm Honotoria (70/16) breechloading guns
Contractor:
McMillan & Sons, Dumbarton,Scotland
Length:
212 feet, 6 inches
Beam:
28 feet, 3 inches
Draft:
13 feet
Displacement:
1390 tons
Complement:
76 Officers and Enlisted Men udner the command of Ltnt. 2st Class Ramon Rodriquez
Engine type:
Engines generated 140 hp., powering a single screw
Coal Bunker capacity:
?
Speed:
12 knots
Armor:
Unarmored

Bibliography:

Naval History Department, Navy Department, Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Vol. 3, (Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1968, reprinted 1977) 26-37.


Visiting Ozette

The sun sets behind a seastack in Cape Alava.

Whether it's the tall seastacks that dot the coast, the crystal waters of Lake Ozette, or the grandeur of the old growth forests, the landscape of Ozette is full of opportunities to explore a diverse landscape.

Ozette is located on the northwestern coast of the Olympic Peninsula. This area is reached by Hoko-Ozette Road off Highway 112 (directions.)

Lake Ozette is also a place of rich history. Discoveries in the past century have unearthed the presence of a culture dating back at least 2,000 years, as well as a well-preserved 300-year-old village that had been covered by a mudslide. Over 50,000 artifacts were recovered, many of which now reside at the Makah Cultural and Research Center in Neah Bay.

A general map and more information regarding facilities, camping, picnic areas, and regulations can be found on the park's Ozette brochure.

Places to Stay:

The campground at Ozette sits next to Lake Ozette and has 15 sites with great views of the lake.

Cabin rentals and campsites are available just outside the park boundary at Ozette, and the nearby towns of Clallam Bay and Sekiu also provide lodging. More information can be found through the Clallam Bay/Sekiu Chamber of Commerce website.

The Ozette area offers a wide range of activities for visitors.

Hiking along the coast is a highlight when visiting the area. Two three-mile boardwalk trails lead to the coast where seals and gray whales can be spotted during migratory months. A trail leading from the coast to Ericson's Bay of Lake Ozette is also a short hike.

There are longer coastal hiking trails as well, including the Ozette Loop. For information about water exploration, check the Lake Ozette by Water page.

Please note: wilderness permits and bear canisters are not available at Ozette Ranger Station.

When hiking along the coast, make sure to check the tides! It's possible to get stranded when high tide rolls in, making certain areas impassable.

Nearby Areas:

Ozette is one of the more remote areas of the park. Most other park destinations are at least an hour away. Make sure to consult the Getting Around page for mileages to different park destinations.

A kayaker enjoys the glassy water of Lake Ozette on a fall day.

Basque Country

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Basque Country, Spanish País Vasco, Basque Euskadi or Euskal Herria, comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) and historic region of northern Spain encompassing the provincias (provinces) of Álava, Guipúzcoa, and Vizcaya (Biscay). The Basque Country is bounded by the Bay of Biscay to the north and the autonomous communities of Navarra to the east, La Rioja to the south, and Cantabria to the west. The Pyrenees Mountains separate the region from the Basque Country of France to the northeast however, the ethnically similar autonomous community of Navarra makes up most of the border with the French Basque region. The current autonomous community of the Basque Country was established by the statute of autonomy of 1979. Its government consists of a president and a parliament. The capital is Vitoria-Gasteiz. Area 2,793 square miles (7,235 square km). Pop. (2011) 2,188,985.

The mountains of Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa are formidably jagged, and the rivers are short and rapid, cutting sharp gorges through the mountains. Average annual precipitation is about 50 inches (1,270 mm), exceeding 60 inches (1,500 mm) around San Sebastián and dropping to half that amount in the Ebro basin. An Atlantic climate prevails in the northeast, characterized by relatively heavy and regular precipitation. A sub-Mediterranean climate prevails in the southern intermontane basin of Álava.

The population of the Ebro River basin is concentrated in small communal nuclei surrounded by open fields and vineyards. The population of the Pyrenees, by contrast, is more widely dispersed and centres on the individual farmstead, the caserío, allowing for intensive cultivation of small plots in the mountains. The rapid industrialization of the region since the mid-19th century caused coastal cities, including Donostia–San Sebastián and Bilbao, to grow at the expense of settlements in the hinterlands. Population density is highest along the coast some four-fifths of the Basque population is concentrated in Greater Bilbao. By the late 20th century, traditional Basque culture had declined with the urban and industrial development of the region, and emigration to France and the Americas had sharply reduced the population living in caseríos.

Álava province presents an open landscape suitable for the cultivation of cereals and grapes. The Basques of the Pyrenees have traditionally been herders, although the introduction of crops from the Americas (corn [maize] and potatoes) has resulted in the expansion of cultivation since the early modern period. Álava remains the most agricultural of the Basque provinces, though its city, Vitoria-Gasteiz, has undergone considerable industrialization since the early 1950s.

Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa provinces are heavily industrialized, having exploited their extensive resources of iron and timber since the late Middle Ages. The Basque metallurgical industries are heavily concentrated in Bilbao and along the banks of the Nervión River. Outside Bilbao there are metallurgical, food-processing, and chemical industries, while the paper industry centres on Tolosa and the banks of the Oria River. Service industries are highly developed in the Basque Country Donostia–San Sebastián is a major resort city, and Bilbao is one of the leading financial centres of Spain. Since the opening of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in 1997, tourism has become an increasingly important segment of the economy.

Basques have long sought autonomy. A separatist movement of the 1930s culminated in a statute of autonomy on October 5, 1936. The Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) formed an autonomous government and established an alliance with Republican forces against Gen. Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39). Following the Republicans’ defeat, Franco suppressed Basque separatism: the Basque Country’s statute of autonomy was abolished in 1939, and many of the EAJ-PNV’s leaders were forced into exile. In 1959 some members of the party, angered at its persistent rejection of armed struggle, broke away and founded Euzkadi Ta Azkatasuna ( ETA Basque for “Basque Homeland and Liberty”). ETA members launched a campaign of terrorism against the Spanish central government, making Basque regionalism one of the most destabilizing forces in Spanish political life.

With the restoration of democracy in Spain in the 1970s, the Basque Country’s second statute of autonomy was approved in 1979, and the EAJ-PNV reestablished itself as the leading political party in the region. Meanwhile, however, ETA terrorist attacks throughout Spain, which the EAJ-PNV condemned, became more frequent. (In the 1990s several cease-fires between ETA and the Madrid central government were called, but these agreements ultimately were broken, and ETA members continued to carry out violent acts into the early 21st century.) In the 2009 parliamentary elections the EAJ-PNV lost power when it failed to gain a majority vote. Thus, for the first time in almost 30 years, the Basque Country was to be governed by a coalition of political parties that did not support the Basque Nationalists’ calls for sovereignty. In 2011 ETA declared a permanent cessation of violent activities, and the following year the EAJ-PNV returned to power at the head of a minority government.


Physical and human geography [ edit | edit source ]

Álava is an inland territory and features a largely transitional climate between the humid, Atlantic neighbouring northern provinces and the dry and warmer lands south of the Ebro River. According to the relief and landscape characteristics, the territory is divided into five main zones:

  • The Gorbea Foothills: Green hilly landscape.
  • The Valleys: Low valleys, drier, sparsely populated.
  • The Plains: Heartland of Álava comprising Vitoria and Salvatierra-Agurain, with a central urban area and crop landscape prevailing around and bounded south and north by the Basque Mountains.
  • The Alavese Mountains: Higher forest lands.
  • The Alavese Rioja: Oriented to the south on the left bank of the Ebro River, perfect for vineyards.
  • Ayala: The area clustering around the Nervión River, with Amurrio and Laudio as its major towns. The region shows close bonds with Bilbao and Biscaye and an industrial landscape.

Tip of the Burunda corridor in Navarre, opening on the Alavese Plains, with the Basque Mountains Aratz and Aizkorri on the right

Unlike Biscay and Gipuzkoa, but for Ayala and Aramaio, the waters of Álava pour into the Ebro and hence to the Mediterranean by means of two main waterways, i.e. the Zadorra (main axis of Álava) and Bayas Rivers. In addition, the Zadorra Reservoir System harvests a big quantity of waters that supply not only the capital city but other major Basque towns and cities too, like (Bilbao, etc.).

While in 1950 agriculture and farming shaped the landscape of the territory (42.4% of the working force vs 30.5% in industry and construction), the trend shifted gradually during the 60s and 70s on the grounds of a growing industrial activity in the Alavese Plains (Llanada Alavesa), with the main focus lying on the industrial estates of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Gamarra, Betoño and Ali Gobeo) and, to a lesser extent, Salvatierra-Agurain and Araia. At the turn of the century, only 2% of the working Alavese people was in agriculture, while a 60% was in the third sector and 32% in manufacturing. ΐ] Industry associated to iron and metal developed earlier in the Atlantic area much in tune with Bilbao's economic dynamics, with droves of people flocking to and clustering in Amurrio and Laudio, which have since become the third and second main towns of Álava.


Sources of ecclesiastical history

  • (A) Remains (reliqui&oelig, Ueberreste) or immediate sources, i.e. such as prove a fact directly, being themselves part or remnant of the fact. To this class belong remains in the narrower sense of the word, e.g. liturgical customs, ecclesiastical institutions, acts of the popes and councils, art-products etc. also monuments set up to commemorate events, e.g. inscriptions.
  • (B) Tradition or mediate sources, i.e. such as rest upon the statements of witnesses who communicate an event to others. Tradition may be oral (narrative and legends), written (writings of particular authors), or pictorial (pictures, statues).
  • (a) according to their origin, into divine (the canonical sacred writings) and human (all other sources)
  • (b) according to the position of the author, into public (such as originated from an official person or magistrate, e.g. papal writings, decrees of councils, pastoral letters of bishops, rules of orders etc.) and private (such as come from a person holding no public office, or from an official in his private capacity, e.g. biographies, works of ecclesiastical writers, private letters etc.)
  • (c) according to the religion of the author, into domestic (of Christian origin) and foreign (i.e. written by non-Christians)
  • (d) according to the manner of transmission, into written (inscriptions, public acts, writings of all kinds) and unwritten (monuments, art-products stories, legends etc.).

The aforesaid historical sources have in modern times been fully and critically investigated by numerous scholars and are now easily accessible to all in good editions. A very general outline of these sources will suffice here (see special articles in this Encyclopedia).

Remains

  1. Inscriptions, i.e. texts written on durable material, which were either meant to perpetuate the knowledge of certain acts, or which describe the character and purpose of a particular object. The Christian inscriptions of different epochs and countries are now accessible in numerous collections.
  2. Monuments erected for Christian purposes, especially tombs, sacred edifices, monasteries, hospitals for the sick and pilgrims objects used in the liturgy or private devotions.
  3. Liturgies, rituals, particularly liturgical books of various kinds, which were once used in Divine service.
  4. Necrologies and confraternity-books used at the prayers and public services for the living and the dead.
  5. Papal acts, Bulls and Briefs to a great extent edited in the papal "Bullaria", "Regesta", and special ecclesiastico-national collections.
  6. Acts and decrees of general councils and of particular synods.
  7. Collections of official decrees of Roman congregations, bishops, and other ecclesiastical authorities.
  8. Rules of faith (Symbola fidei) drawn up for the public use of the Church, various collections of which have been made.
  9. Official collections of ecclesiastical laws juridically obligatory for the whole Church.
  10. Rules and constitutions of orders and congregations.
  11. Concordats between the ecclesiastical and the secular power.
  12. Civil laws since they often contain matters bearing on religion or of ecclesiastical interest.

Tradition

  • (1) Collections of acts of the martyrs, of legends and lives of the saints.
  • (2) Collections of lives of the popes (Liber Pontificalis) and of bishops of particular Churches.
  • (3) Works of ecclesiastical writers, which contain information about historical events to some extent all ecclesiastical literature belongs to this category.
  • (4) Ecclesiastico-historical works, which take on more or less the character of sources, especially for the time in which their authors lived.
  • (5) Pictorial representations (paintings, sculptures, etc.).

The foregoing are accessible in various collections, partly in editions of the works of particular authors (Fathers of the Church, theologians, historians), partly in historical collections which contain writings of different authors correlated in content, or all the traditional written sources for a given land.


AG: 5-hour ENERGY® makers ordered to pay nearly $4.3 million for consumer violations

OLYMPIA — Attorney General Bob Ferguson today announced that a King County judge ordered the makers of 5-hour ENERGY® to pay nearly $4.3 million in penalties, attorneys’ fees and costs for multiple violations of the state Consumer Protection Act.

Ferguson filed a lawsuit against the companies in 2014, alleging violations of the state Consumer Protection Act. After a three-week trial last September, Judge Beth Andrus ruled in the state’s favor, finding that claims in the companies’ advertising were deceptive, and therefore violated the Consumer Protection Act. The deceptive claims — that the popular flavored energy shots is superior to coffee, that doctors recommend 5-hour ENERGY®, and that its decaffeinated formula provides energy, alertness and focus that lasts for hours — appeared in press releases, on the internet and in thousands of print and broadcast ads.

“The makers of 5-hour ENERGY® broke the law in pursuit of profit, and now they are paying for it,” Ferguson said.

In a ruling issued late Tuesday, Judge Andrus ordered defendants Living Essentials LLC and Innovation Ventures LLC to pay nearly $2.2 million in civil penalties for violations of the Consumer Protection Act.

“Defendants spent more time trying to justify the science behind their ads after-the-fact than they did before marketing the products in Washington,” Judge Andrus wrote in her Tuesday order. “The Court was struck by the fact that Defendants presented no testimony from a single scientist actually involved in developing the contents of this product.”

“There was scant evidence as to what science anyone at Living Essentials had ever seen or relied on before it began to sell this product,” she continued.

Judge Andrus also ordered the companies to pay nearly $2.1 million in costs and fees to Ferguson’s office.

The penalties and fees ordered Tuesday include more than $64,000 in sanctions against Living Essentials and Innovation Ventures for “willful” discovery violations in the lead-up to the September trial. Andrus ruled that the defendants improperly “cherry-picked” the documents they produced to the Attorney General’s Office, impeding the ability of the Attorney General’s Office to prepare for trial.

In Tuesday’s decision, Judge Andrus also ordered Living Essentials and Innovation Ventures not to make claims about the biochemical or physiological effects of their products, or their “synergistic” interactions with caffeine or other ingredients, without competent and reliable scientific evidence to support those claims. The order further bars the companies from using survey data in their marketing or advertising unless the surveys are created, conducted and evaluated in an objective manner by qualified professionals, and the data is not presented in a deceptive manner.

Lisa Erwin and Trisha McArdle, both senior counsel with the Attorney General’s Office, Assistant Attorney General Daniel Davies and former Assistant Attorney General Kimberlee Gunning handled the case.


Facepiece overview [ edit | edit source ]

The faceblank was flat-moulded with a rough texture on the outside and a smooth one on the inside.

The faceblank has two cavities to fit the triplex glass lenses, and two aluminium frames were crimped onto this assembly to keep the lenses in position. The size of the lenses can be either 50mm or 70mm.

The inlet piece is positioned at the chin, it has a 25mm thread and an inlet valve.

The two exhale valve assemblies are positioned at each side of the facepiece. Each assembly is composed of a housing, a lid and an exhale valve. There are two types of lids, earlier masks use ones that are similar to that of the late-type T.33, while later ones sport ones that are slightly different. The exhale valve is composed of two discs connected from the centre, it can be inspected and replaced by unscrewing the lid.

The 5-straps head-harness has 4 elastic straps on the side, adjustable through buckles, which all gather into a nape pad. The top strap is attached directly to the facepiece, and it can be adjusted through a buckle on the nape pad.

The mask is marked on the side with a size stamp, the name of the company and the government agreement number.


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"It is with great pleasure that I have heard the wound you received in the action [the Battle of Trafalgar] is in a hopeful way of recovery, and that your country may still have the benefit of your future service. But, Sir, you surrendered yourself to me and it was in consideration only of the state of your wound, that you were not removed into my ship. I could not disturb the repose of a man supposed to be in his last moments but your sword, the emblem of your service, was delivered to me by your Captain and I expect that you consider yourself a prisoner of war, until you shall be regularly exchanged by cartel."

-- Vice-Admiral Collingwood's letter to Vice-Admiral Ignacio Maria de Alava y Saenz de Navarrete in Cadiz, 30 October 1805

"In short, this talisman [Napoleon's military reputation], whose charm had so long operated on the French military, has been completely dashed to pieces. Buonaparte has for ever lost the reputation of being invincible and, henceforward, this character will belong to an honourable man [the Duke of Wellington], who, far from employing this glorious title in disturbing and enslaving Europe, will convert it into an instrument of her felicity, and in procuring for her that peace which she so much requires."

-- Lieutenant-General Miguel Ricardo de Alava's report on the Battle of Waterloo to the Spanish Secretary of State, 13 July 1815

"Alava, the Spanish General, so attached and devoted to the Duke (by-the-bye, he was a Captain of a Spanish battleship or frigate, I forget which), told me and Juana two years after the Battle of Waterloo that the night after that eventful day, the Duke got back to his quarters at Waterloo about nine or ten at night. The table was laid for the usual number, while none appeared of the many of his staff but Alava and Fremantle."

-- Smith, G. C. Moore, "The Autobiography of Harry Smith," 1909

Don Miguel-Ricardo de Alava holds a unique, but little-known, place in the history of the Napoleonic Wars. This naval officer, army officer, politician and ambassador is reputed to be the only man present at both of this period's two crucial military events: the Battle of Trafalgar (21.10.1805) and the Battle of Waterloo (18.06.1815).

Born in Vittoria in 1770, Alava began his military career in the Spanish Navy. In spite of having risen to the rank of captain (in command of a frigate) Alava subsequently decided to exchange services and continue his career - starting at the rank of captain - in the Spanish Army. So it was s an officer of marines that Alava participated in the first of the two great Napoleonic defeats - that of Trafalgar in 1805.

Alava had been posted to the 'Santa Ana,' the 112-gun flagship of his uncle, Vice-Admiral Ignacio-Maria de Alava y Saenz de Navarrete (1750-1817). At Trafalgar, Alava y Saenz de Navarrete commanded the Cadiz squadron and was second-in-command to Admiral Don Federico-Carlos Gravina y Napoli (1756-09.03.1806) on the 112-gun 'Principe de Asturias' [1]. The third Spanish flag officer present was Rear-Admiral Don Balthasar-Hildalgo Cisneros de la Torre (1758-09.06.1829) on the 136-gun 'Santissima Trinidad' [2].

Heavily damaged by Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood's 100-gun HMS 'Royal Sovereign', Alava y Saenz de Navarrete's flagship was forced to strike her colours to Collingwood [3]. He and his nephew might have remained British prisoners for the remainder of the Napoleonic Wars had not the 'Santa Ana' and the French 74-gun 'Algeciras' been recaptured by a French commodore two days later.

The defeat of France and Spain at Trafalgar did not cause Alava to harbour anti-French sentiments in 1808, he was one of the Spanish nobility to accept King Joseph's new constitution at Bayonne. It was only after the defeat of General de Division Pierre-Antoine Dupont de l'Etang (1765-1840) at Bailen on 19 July that Alava joined the insurrection against the French.

The Spanish Cortes sent him to British Headquarters as their liaison officer and the future Duke of Wellington later appointed him as one of his aides-de-camp. Alava spent the remainder of the Peninsular War attached to Wellington's staff, eventually reaching the rank of brigadier-general.

For reasons that are not entirely clear, the newly-restored King Fernando IV of Spain promptly threw Alava into prison. But Alava had powerful friends and both Wellington and Alava's uncle Raimundo Ethenard - a member of the Spanish Inquisition led by Francisco-Xavier de Mier y Campillo, Bishop of Almeria - successfully secured his release. Fernando (perhaps trying to get Alava as far away from Madrid as possible) subsequently appointed him Spain's Ambassador to the Hague.

By a stroke of luck, Fernando's appointment put Alava in the area of the upcoming 1815 Waterloo Campaign. He returned to Wellington's field staff as Spanish Commissioner (holding the rank of Lieutnant-General) and was present at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June [4].

Alava's report on Waterloo a month later to the Spanish Secretary of State was highly-critical of Napoleon. "His [Napoleon's] military reputation is lost for ever and, on this occasion, there is no treason on the part of the allies, nor bridges blown up before their time, on which to throw the blame [a reference to the Battle of Leipzig in 1813]: all the shame will fall upon himself," he wrote. "Numerical superiority, superiority of artillery, all was in his favour and his having commenced the attack, proves that he had sufficient means to execute it."

After Waterloo Alava's career continued to alternate between royal favour and royal disapproval. He was elected to the Cortes, eventually becoming its president in 1822 - but went into self-imposed exile in England several years later. Alava subsequently returned to Spain Queen Maria Christina [regent for Queen Isabella II] appointed him ambassador to London (1834) and ambassador to Paris (1835). However, the old soldier again went into exile (and retirement) - this time in France.

Alava died at Bareges in 1843.

[1] Alava y Saenz de Navarrete became commander of the Spanish Fleet on 24.02.1817.

[2] The 4,900-ton 'Santissima Trinidad' - her formal name was actually 'Sanctissima Trinidad y Nuestra Senora del Buen Fin' - had originally been built in 1769 in Havana as a 116-gun three-deck warship. In 1795, with the addition of an 8-pounder battery, her armament was increased to 136 guns on four gun-decks.

[3] Cuthbert, 1 st Baron Collingwood (26.09.1748-07.03.1810) took over command of the British Fleet after Nelson's death.

[4] In 1815, Alava was one of four Allied commissioners present at the Battle of Waterloo. The three other commissioners were Charles-Andre, comte Pozzo di Borgo (08.03.1764-15.02.1842) representing Russia Charles, baron de Vincent - a Belgian in Austrian service and former governor-general of Holland from 05.05.1814 to 01.08.1814 - representing Austria and Friedrich-Ferdinand-Karl, Freiherr von Muffling [gen. Weiss] (12.06.1775-16.01.1851) representing Prussia.


Watch the video: Nastya and the story about mysterious surprises