On the morning of September 11, 2001, 19 men hijacked four U.S. commercial airplanes that had taken off with full fuel tanks for the West Coast. The hijackers deliberately crashed the planes into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and onto a field outside of Shanksville, Pennsylvania. The losses were devastating: A total of 2,977 people were killed in New York City, Washington, D.C. and Pennsylvania.
Watch HISTORY videos below about the devastating attacks on that day and the aftermath.
Remembering 9/11: The Photo Archive
Remembering 9/11: The Elevator Motor
The 9/11 Flag: Lost and Found
Remembering 9/11: The Ground Zero Cross
Remembering 9/11: The Ground Zero Bible
Remembering 9/11: Karyn's Wings
Remembering 9/11: Pentagon Employee Bruce Powers
The 9/11 Survivor Tree
"9/11: Inside Air Force One" premieres Wednesday, September 11 at 9/8c.
September 11 Attacks: Videos - HISTORY
The September 11 Digital Archive uses electronic media to collect, preserve, and present the history of September 11, 2001 and its aftermath. The Archive contains more than 150,000 digital items, a tally that includes more than 40,000 emails and other electronic communications, more than 40,000 first-hand stories, and more than 15,000 digital images. In September 2003, the Library of Congress accepted the Archive into its collections, an event that both ensured the Archive's long-term preservation and marked the library's first major digital acquisition.
Browse: Explore the collection for stories, images, emails, documents, sounds, and videos of September 11
Research: Search, sort, and examine the entire collection
Contribute: Tell your story, add your email, and upload images, documents, and other digital files to the Archive
September 11,2001 Timeline
Timeline, September 11, 2001
Between 4:45 – 6:45 am: Hijacker-Pilot Jarrah phones girlfriend in Germany
In a Newark, New Jersey hotel room, Ziad Jarrah, places five telephone calls to Lebanon (his home country), one call to France, and one call to his girlfriend, Aysel Senguen, in Germany. 4 In this brief call, he tells Senguen that he loves her. 5 Jarrah and three male companions check out of the Days Inn at approximately 6:48 am 6 and head to Newark International Airport to board United Airlines Flight 93.
7:00 am: United Airlines crew prepares for flight
United Airlines Captain Jason Dahl enters a secure area of Terminal A at Newark International Airport and begins preparations to pilot Flight 93 from Newark to San Francisco. He meets LeRoy Homer, Jr., the first officer for the flight, in the operations center. The five flight attendants assigned to Flight 93 also gather at the center for a briefing and to divide responsibilities. 7
7:00 am: Ida’s Store opens in Shanksville, Pennsylvania
In this small western Pennsylvania town of 245 residents, Rick King walks a block from his home to his business and opens Ida’s Store for the day. He begins brewing coffee for his regular early morning customers.
7:03-7:39 am: Hijackers check in for flight at Newark Airport
Saeed al Ghamdi, Ahmed al Nami, Ahmad al Haznawi and Ziad Jarrah check in at the ticket counter for United Airlines Flight 93. 8 Jarrah, 26, of Lebanon, has been in the United States off and on since June, 2000. 9 He earned his private pilot certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) at the Florida Flight Training Center in November, 2000. 10 The other three hijackers, citizens of Saudi Arabia, range in age between 20 and 25 years old. 11 . They entered the United States during May and June, 2001
The four men pass through the security checkpoint without incident. Only one of the four, Ahmad al Haznawi, is selected for enhanced screening. As a precaution, his bag is held off the plane until he boards. 13
7:20 am: Boarding call for Flight 93
Flight 93 begins boarding at Gate 17. 14 The plane is a Boeing 757-200, capable of seating 182 persons, but is only 20% filled for the early morning trip to San Francisco. The plane has a single, center aisle. It is loaded with 48,700 pounds of fuel for the
non-stop, cross country trip. 15 The flight is scheduled to depart the gate at 8:00 a.m.(the same time as United Airlines Flight 175) and is expected to land in San Francisco at 11:14 a.m. Pacific Time. 16
The passengers who board Flight 93 range in age from 20 to 79. They are college students, retirees, businessmen and women. Ten passengers (including the 4 hijackers) are seated in first class. The remaining 27 passengers have seats in the coach section.
7:39-7:48 am: Terrorist-Hijackers board Flight 93
The four hijackers take seats in first class. Jarrah is in seat 1B, closest to the cockpit. 17 The others sit in 3C, 3D, and 6B. At least one of the hijackers carries a document entitled “The Last Night”, an instruction sheet for the hijackers which begins, “Embrace the will to die and renew allegiance. Familiarize yourself with the plan well from every aspect, and anticipate the reaction and resistance from the enemy.” 18
Until 8:00 am: Passengers relay changes in travel plans
At least ten of the passengers and crew on Flight 93 had planned to take later or earlier flights or found themselves on Flight 93 due to schedule changes. 19 One of these, passenger Lauren Grandcolas, phones her husband in San Rafael, California and leaves a message saying that she will arrive home an hour earlier than expected. She had been scheduled for United Airlines Flight 91, but her car service arrived at the airport early, allowing her to take Flight 93 instead. “Hey, I just want to let you know I’m on the eight o’clock instead of the 9:20,” Lauren told her husband. 20
8:00 am: The Shanksville, Pennsylvania Post Office opens for the day
Judi Baeckel, acting postmaster, opens the Shanksville Post Office for the day and begins to sort the mail for the 165 box-holders.
8:01 am: Flight 93 leaves the terminal.
United Airlines Flight 93 leaves the terminal just one minute behind schedule. On board are 37 passengers and 7 crew members. Normally, planes taxi to the runway and take off within 10-15 minutes. 21 A cockpit voice recorder on board the plane begins capturing sounds from pick-ups in the pilot and first officer’s headsets and in the overhead panel of the flight deck. The device has a 30 minute loop tape. 22 The aircraft’s flight data recorder begins storing thousands of pieces of information about the flight.
8:14 am: Flight 11 is hijacked
American Airlines Flight 11, en route from Boston to Los Angeles, is hijacked. Within minutes, Flight Attendant Betty Ong phones American Airlines, reporting, “The cockpit’s not answering somebody’s been stabbed in business class--and I think there’s mace that we can’t breathe. I don’t know. I think we’re getting hijacked.” Ong continues to relay information from the flight for the next 26 minutes.23
8:16 am: Classes begin at Shanksville-Stonycreek School
It is the tenth day of the new school year at Shanksville-Stonycreek, one of the smallest public schools in Pennsylvania. There are 490 students in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12.24
8:25 am: Flight Attendants calmly relate information
On Flight 11, Flight Attendant Amy Sweeney phones a different American Airlines facility, reporting in a calm voice that the plane has been hijacked, a passenger in first class has been killed, two flight attendants have been stabbed, the crew is unable to contact the cockpit, and there is a bomb in the plane. She and fellow Flight Attendant Betty Ong report the seat numbers of the “Middle Easterners” who have taken over the cockpit.25
8:42 am: Flight 93 takes off 25 minutes late
Air traffic is typically heavy at the Newark Airport, causing delays on the runway. When United Airlines Flight 93 finally takes off, it is running about 25 minutes late.26
8:42-8:46 am: A second plane is hijacked
United Airlines Flight 175, en route from Boston to Los Angeles, is hijacked. Its transponder code is changed and the aircraft deviates from its assigned altitude. 27
8:46 am: Flight 11 crashes into the World Trade Center
Flight Attendant Amy Sweeney, still speaking with American Airlines, reports, “We are flying low. We are flying very, very low. We are flying way too low. Oh, my God! We are way too low.” Hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 crashes into floors 93-99 of the North Tower of the World Trade Center. All on board and an unknown number in the building are killed on impact.28
8:50 am: President Bush learns of crash at World Trade Center
President George W. Bush is visiting a Sarasota, Florida classroom to speak about education and listen to children reading. Before entering the classroom, Bush is informed that “a small, twin-engine plane has crashed into the World Trade Center.” 29 Five minutes later he speaks to National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, who is at the White House. She tells the President that, in fact, a commercial aircraft has struck the World Trade Center. 30
8:51-8:54 am: A third plane is hijacked
American Airlines Flight 77, en route from Washington, D.C. to Los Angeles, is hijacked and begins making unauthorized turns to the south and east and descending. Because the transponder is turned off, Air Traffic Controllers at the Indianapolis Center are not able to locate the aircraft.
8:52 am: Flight 175 passengers phone family members crew members call airline
A passenger on Flight 175, Peter Hanson, phones his father and tells him about the hijacking. Hanson says his son reported: “I think they’ve taken over the cockpit—an attendant has been stabbed—and someone else up front may have been killed. The plane is making strange moves. Call United Airlines.” 31 A male flight attendant phones United Airlines, reporting the hijacking and the murder of both pilots. He believes the hijackers are flying the plane. Passenger Garnet Bailey phones his wife. Another passenger, Brian Sweeney, phones his wife, leaving this message: “Hi, Jules. It’sBrian. Listen, I’m on an airplane that’s been hijacked.” He phones his mother to report the hijacking, telling her that the passengers are considering storming the cockpit to wrest control from the hijackers. 32
9:00 am: Passengers’ final moments on hijacked Flight 175
Peter Hanson phones his father again and, according to his father, reports these conditions on the hijacked plane: “It’s getting bad, Dad—A stewardess was stabbed—They seem to have knives and mace—They said they have a bomb . . . I don’t think the pilot is flying the plane—I think we are going down—I think they intend to go to Chicago or someplace and fly into a building—Don’t worry, Dad—If it happens, it’ll be very fast—My God, my God.” 33
9:03 am: Flight 175 crashes into the World Trade Center
Millions watch on television as hijacked United Airlines Flight 175 crashes into floors 77-85 of the South Tower of the World Trade Center. All on board and an unknown number in the building are killed instantly. 34
9:35 am: Flight Attendant pleads for her life.
In the cockpit of Flight 93, a flight attendant pleads with the hijackers not to kill her, “I don’t want to die. I don’t want to die. I don’t want to die.” 57
9:35 am: Flight 93 Flight Attendant reports hijacking to United Airlines
Flight attendant Sandy Bradshaw dials the United Airlines Maintenance Facility in San Francisco from the Airfone in Row 33 (the next to the last row in the plane) to report the hijacking. The manager who takes over the call describes the flight attendant as
“shockingly calm.” Bradshaw says that the hijackers are in the first class cabin and cockpit and have announced that they have a bomb. She says they have pulled a knife and have killed a flight attendant. This begins a series of 37 phone calls made from the plane, most of them made on Airfones in the last nine rows. 58
9:37 am: Flight 77 crashes into the Pentagon
Hijacked American Airlines Flight 77 crashes into the Pentagon at a speed of 530 miles per hour, penetrating the E, D, and C rings. All on board are killed, along with 125 civilian and military personnel in the Pentagon. 59
9:37 am: Passengers begin placing calls, learn of attacks at World Trade Center Passenger Mark Bingham calls his mother from an Airfone in Row 25. He tells her thathe is on Flight 93 and it is being hijacked. Bingham reports that the plane has been taken over by three guys who say they have a bomb. 60 Passenger Tom Burnett makes the first of several brief calls to his wife from Airfones in Rows 24 and 25. During these calls he reports that the plane has been hijacked, the hijackers claim to have a bomb, and a passenger has been knifed. His wife tells him about the planes flying into the World Trade Center. In a later call to his wife, Burnett says the passenger that had been knifed is dead, “they” are in the cockpit, and a group of passengers is getting ready to do something. 61 Passenger Jeremy Glick calls his wife from the Airfone in Row 27. He speaks first to his mother-in-law and then to his wife in a call which lasts 25 ½ minutes. Glick tells his family that the plane has been hijacked by three “Iranian-looking” males with dark skin and bandanas one of the males stated that he was in possession of a bomb in a red box and one is armed with a knife. He said that he and other passengers are contemplating “rushing” the hijackers. The passengers are voting on whether to storm the cockpit and retake control of the plane. 62
9:39 am: Cleveland Center hears Hijacker-Pilot’s announcement to passengers The FAA’s Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center overhears this announcement from Flight 93: “Ah! Here’s the captain. I would like you all to remain seated. We have a bomb aboard, and we are going back to the airport, and we have our demands.
So, please remain quiet.” Pilots of other aircraft using this same radio frequency report to Cleveland Center that they also heard the transmission about the bomb. 63
9:39 am: Passenger phones husband, records message
Lauren Grandcolas calls her husband from the Airfone in Row 23 and leaves a message expressing her love and saying, “We’re having a little problem on the plane . . .I’m not uncomfortable and I’m okay, for now. It’s a little problem.” 64
9:41 am: Flight 93 transponder turned off
Flight 93’s transponder, a devise which emits an identifying signal during flight, is turned off. In order to continue tracking Flight 93, Cleveland Center locates the aircraft on primary radar and matches readings with visual sightings from other aircraft, watching the flight as it turns east, and then southeast. 65
9:42 am: All aircraft ordered to land
Ben Sliney at the FAA Command Center in Herndon orders all aircraft to land at the nearest airport as soon as practical. 66
9:43 am: Passenger phones father
Joe DeLuca calls his father from the Airfone in Row 26 and tells him that his flight has been hijacked and to express his love. 67
9:44 am: Passenger reaches Airfone operator
Passenger Todd Beamer, using the Airfone in Row 32, reaches a GTE operator. His
connection lasts for the remainder of the flight. He notes the following: the flight has been hijacked, the captain and first officer are lying on the floor of the first class cabin and are injured or possibly dead. He reports that one of the terrorists has a red belt with a bomb strapped to his waist, two of the hijackers, who had knives, entered the cockpit and closed the door behind them. He indicates that the plane is going up and down and has turned or changed direction. Beamer tells the operator that he and some other passengers are planning something. He puts the phone down. 68
9:44 am: Terminal at Pittsburgh Airport receives warning
Pittsburgh Terminal Radar Approach Control North Arrival (PIT) is notified by Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center that a non-responding aircraft is on a projected flight path which will result in its passing “in close proximity if not directly overhead the Greater Pittsburgh International Airport.” 69
9:45 am: Evacuations begin at White House and U.S. Capitol
Evacuations of the White House and Capitol begin in response to rumors of escalating attacks. 70 Congressional leaders are taken to a secure facility. This is the first time in history that the entire United States Capitol building is evacuated. 71 First Lady Laura Bush, who is at the Russell Senate Office Building adjacent to the Capitol in order to brief the Senate Education Committee, has also been taken to a secure location. 72
9:45 am: Cleveland Center continues to call Flight 93
Cleveland Center continues to call Flight 93: “United ninety three Cleveland do you still hear the center? United ninety-three do you still hear Cleveland?” 73 Flight 93 does not respond.
9:46 am: Passenger phones sister, records message
Linda Gronlund dials her sister from the Airfone in Row 26 and leaves a message saying her flight has been hijacked by terrorists who say they have a bomb. “Apparently, they, uh, flown a couple of planes into the World Trade Center already and it looks like they’re going to take this one down as well,” she reports. “Mostly, I just wanted to say I love you and I’m going to miss you.” 74
9:46 am: FAA Headquarters updated on Flight 93’s distance from Washington, D.C.
The Herndon Command Center updates FAA Headquarters: Flight 93 is tracking toward Washington, D.C. and is 29 minutes away from the city. 75
9:48 am: Flight Attendant phones husband, records message
CeeCee Lyles calls her husband from the Airfone in Row 32 and leaves a recorded message saying the aircraft is hijacked: “We’re turned around and I’ve heard that there’s planes that’s been, been flown into the World Trade Center. I hope to be able to see your face again.” 76
9:49 am: Passenger phones friend
Passenger Marion Britton calls her friend from the phone in Row 33 and tells him that her plane is hijacked. Britton also says that the hijackers cut two passengers’ throats, and reveals that she knows that two planes have crashed into the World Trade
9:50 am: Dispatcher continues to send warnings
Dispatcher Ballinger continues to send text messages to the airline’s transcontinental flights, including Flight 93, advising them to “LAND ASP AT NEAREST UAL AIRPORT – ORD TERRORIST. NO ONE IN TO COCKPIT—LAND ASP”. 78
9:50 am: Flight Attendant phones husband
Flight Attendant Sandy Bradshaw calls her husband from the Airfone in Row 33. In the eight-minute call she reports the emergency and seems to be aware of the other hijackings that morning. Her husband confirms to her that two planes have crashed into the World Trade Center. Bradshaw tells her husband that the plane has been hijacked by three men who carried knives and put on red headbands as they were taking over the plane. She says she thinks the plane may be over the Mississippi because they are passing over a large river. She tells him that the passengers are discussing how to overpower the hijackers, including preparing hot water to throw on the hijackers before rushing them. 79
9:51 am: The Greater Pittsburgh Airport Tower is evacuated. 80
9:54 am: Passenger phones stepmother
Honor Elizabeth Wainio calls her stepmother from the Airfone in Row 33 and tells her that the plane has been hijacked. After about four and a half minutes of conversation, Wainio reports that the passengers and crew are getting ready to break into the cockpit. According to her stepmother she ends the call saying, “I have to go. I love you. Good-bye.” 81
9:55 am: Code for Reagan National Airport entered in flight computer
The pilot- hijacker, presumably Jarrah, enters the navigational code for Reagan National Airport into the aircraft’s flight computer in order to guide the aircraft to Washington,
9:55 am: Operator hears passenger declaration
The Airfone operator, who has been on the line with passenger Todd Beamer since
9:44, reports that someone says, “Are you guys ready? Okay! Let’s roll!” 83
9:56 am: Employees at Pittsburgh Airport Tower return to work
A small contingency of controllers voluntarily return to their positions at the Greater Pittsburgh Airport facility. 84
9:57 am: Passengers and crew end phone calls to begin the struggle
Passengers and crew begin their assault on the Flight 93 terrorist-hijackers. Flight Attendant Sandy Bradshaw ends the call to her husband saying that everyone’s running up to first class and she’s got to go. ” 85
9:58 am: Passenger dials 9-1-1
Passenger Edward Felt dials 9-1-1 from his cell phone and is connected to the Westmoreland County [PA] 9-1-1 Center. In the 70-second call Felt reports: “Hijacking in progress!” and provides the flight number, the aircraft type, and the Newark to San Francisco original flight plan. 86
9:58 am: Flight Attendant phones husband, relays her final message
Flight Attendant CeeCee Lyles dials her husband on her cell phone and this time reaches him. She tells him that the plane has been hijacked and the passengers and crew are forcing their way into the cockpit. 87
9:58:55 am: Cockpit Voice Recorder captures English-speaking voices:
The cockpit voice recorder captures the voice of a native English-speaking male: “In the cockpit! In the cockpit!”
9:58:57 am: Hijackers rock the plane from side to side
Jarrah tells another hijacker in the cockpit to block the door. Jarrah rolls the plane sharply left and right, but the assault by the passengers and crew continues. 88
9:59 am: A struggle for control of the plane at 5,000 feet
With the plane at 5,000 feet above sea level, about 2 minutes of rapid, full left and right control wheel inputs result in multiple 30 degree rolls to the left and right. 89 The cockpit voice recorder captures sounds of loud thumps, crashes, shouts and breaking glasses and plates. A native English-speaking male voice or voices says, “Stop him” and “Let’s get Them"
9:59 am: In New York City, the South Tower of the World Trade Center, the building struck by Flight 175, collapses. 90
10:00 am: Pilot of small plane sees Flight 93, wings rocking
Bill Wright, the pilot of a small, private plane in the air over Westmoreland County [PA], reports seeing a large airliner at approximately 8000 feet in the vicinity of the Latrobe, Pennsylvania airport. The aircraft’s landing gear is down, he says, the wings are rocking, and the aircraft appears to be in distress. 91
10:00 am: Flight 93 makes steep climbs and dives
Terrorist-pilot Jarrah pitches the nose of the plane up and down to disrupt the assault, and then stab10:00:05 am: Hijackers discuss final actions
One of the hijackers asks Jarrah, “Is that it? Shall we finish it off?” A hijacker responds, “No. Not yet. When they all come, we finish it off.” Sounds of fighting continue outside the cockpit. Jarrah pitches the nose of the aircraft up and down.
10:00:14 am: English-speaking voices captured by cockpit voice recorder
A native English-speaking male shouts, “Ah!” A native English-speaking male says, “I’m injured.” A native English-speaking male shouts, “In the cockpit. If we don’t we’ll die.” A command is shouted, in the distance, by a native English-speaking male: “Roll it.”
10:01 am: Hijacker decision captured by the cockpit voice recorder
Jarrah stops violent maneuvers and says, “Allah is the greatest! Allah is the greatest.” He then asks another hijacker in the cockpit, “Is that it? I mean, shall we pull it down?” The other hijacker replies, “Put it in it, and pull it down.” 92
10:02 am: The struggle continues
Passengers and crew members keep up their assault. A native English-speaking male shouts loudly, “Turn it up!” A hijacker says: “Pull it down! Pull it down!” The plane, nose down, begins a rapid descent the control wheel is turned hard to the right. The airplane rolls onto its back. A hijacker begins shouting, “Allah is the greatest. Allah is the greatest.”
10:03:07 am: “No!” English-speaking voice.
10:03:11 am: Flight 93 crashes in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania
With sounds of the passengers and crew fighting the terrorists, Flight 93 crashes into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 563 miles per hour, about 20 minutes flying time from Washington, D.C.94 All on board are killed.
10:03 am: Area residents call 9-1-1 to report crash
Drawn onto the front porch of her house on Lambertsville Road by an unexplained loud noise, Paula Pluta sees a silver streak in the sky, followed by a massive fireball and a plume of smoke coming from behind the trees. The plane has crashed one-half mile from her house. She dials 9-1-1 and reports, “Oh, my God! There was an airplane crash here!” A few seconds later, another caller to the 9-1-1 Center reports, breathlessly, “There was an airplane just went down over by Diamond T . . . It was a big airplane, a big jet . . . it went down nose first, upside down.” 95
10:03 am: Shanksville residents see, hear, and feel crash
In Shanksville, three miles from the crash site, residents feel the impact of the crash, hear the explosion, rush outdoors, and see a cloud of black smoke rising above the trees.
10:03 am: Assistant Chief hears crash, runs to fire station
Rick King, Assistant Chief of the Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company, as well as the owner of Ida’s Store, hears the sound of a large plane approaching, and then crashing just over the hill from Shanksville. King runs to the store to tell his wife and employees that a plane has crashed, then runs to the fire station to answer the radio call from Somerset County 9-1-1 Center. When he learns that only three volunteer fire companies have been dispatched, King, breathing hard, informs the dispatcher that “this is a large jetliner, probably related to what’s going on,” and requests that additional companies be dispatched for assistance.96
10:03 am: Shanksville school students feel impact
When the airliner crashes, students at Shanksville-Stonycreek School feel the building shake and hear the windows rattle. Some teachers tell their students to take shelter under their desks. Others students run to the windows and see a large cloud of black smoke rising from the crash site. 97
10:04 am: 9-1-1 Centers communicate
Westmoreland County 9-1-1 Center informs Somerset County 9-1-1 that they received a call from a passenger on board the plane that has just crashed. The caller said the plane was hijacked.
10:06 am: Indian Lake resident photographs smoke cloud
From her home 1.5 miles away from the crash site, Val McClatchey, hears the sound of
the plane crash, sees a cloud of black smoke rising in the clear blue sky, and photographs the cloud from her front porch. Later she provides the memory card from her camera to the FBI.
10:06 am: Shanksville school principal considers evacuation
The principal at Shanksville-Stonycreek School calls Somerset County 9-1-1 to ask if she should evacuate the students from the building. 98
10:07 am: Small jet asked to report on crash location
In response to a request from a Cleveland Air Traffic controller, a Fairchild Falcon 20 business jet, already descending to land at the Johnstown-Cambria County Airport, is instructed to drop down to 1,500 feet to look for smoke. According to the controller’s statement, the pilot spotted smoke and flames and reported the position of the crash site and a description of the area. 99
10:23 am: Somerset County Coroner learns of crash
After learning that a plane may have crashed in his jurisdiction, Coroner Wally Miller calls Somerset County Emergency Management for confirmation. The EMA Director advises him, “If I were you, I’d find a place to set up a temporary morgue
10:28 am: In New York City, the North Tower of the World Trade Center, the building struck by Flight 11, collapses. 106
10:31 am: Shoot-down order communicated to NEADS, but not to pilots
NORAD (North American Air Defense) broadcasts this message: “Vice President has cleared to us to intercept tracks of interest and shoot them down if they do not respond.” The NEADS commander did not pass this order along to the fighter pilots circling over New York and Washington because the commander was unsure how the pilots would, or should, proceed with this guidance. 107
12:15 pm: Airspace cleared over the continental United States
The airspace over the 48 contiguous states is clear of all commercial and private flights. More than 4,500 aircraft have been safely landed. 108
3:30 pm: Bin Laden linked to attacks
From Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska where Air Force One has taken the President for security reasons, George W. Bush convenes the National Security Council by video conference. National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice and President Bush begin the meeting with the words, “We’re at war.” 109 CIA Director Tenet reports “with near certainty” that Osama bin Laden is behind the terrorist attacks. 110
6:00 pm: Governor Ridge views crash site, holds press conference
Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge, after assessing the Flight 93 crash site, holds a news conference: “It’s difficult to describe the range of emotions everyone feels when they not only learn about these incidents today, but they’ve actually seen them. The dictionary is inadequate, and there just aren’t enough words. But I guess the range of emotions goes from rage and anger to sorrow to horror to, I guess, a sense of nausea that we all feel.” 111 He calls on Pennsylvanians to give their prayers, their blood and their talent. He was affected most by what he cannot see: “the most telling site is a large, gaping hole. Very little debris is visible.” 112 He promised “a forceful and appropriate response” to those responsible for the “irrational, cowardly, despicable, unconscionable, and immoral” actions that caused United Airlines Flight 93 to crash near Shanksville. 113
7:00 pm: Community prayer and food donations in Shanksville
As in communities across the nation, Shanksville residents gather for prayer. About 70 people meet at the United Methodist Church on Main Street. Donations of food and drink for the first responders begin to arrive at the Shanksville Fire Station.
8:30 pm: President Bush addresses the nation
President Bush addresses the nation from the White House: “Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist attacks . . . . Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve . . . . America and our friends and allies join with all those who want peace and security in the world, and we stand together to win the war against terrorism. This is a day when all Americans from every walk of life unite in our resolve for justice and peace . . . . None of us will ever forget this day, yet we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world.” 114
8:45 pm: Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company returns to station
Sixteen volunteer firefighters and three pieces of equipment, on scene for the past 10 hours, return to the fire station in Shanksville. They remain on stand-by for the next 13 days, assisting the FBI in the recovery and investigation of the crash of Flight 93. 115
1 National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, the 9/11 Commission Report (with Third Monograph) (New York: Barnes and Noble, 2006), 1. This is the opening paragraph of the 9/11 Commission Report. All references to the 9/11 Commission Report in this timeline refer to the 2006 edition of the report which includes the Third Monograph, “The Four Flights and Civil Aviation Security.” This document was re-released in September, 2005 absent many of the initial redactions, following a review undertaken by the Administration at the request of the 9/11 Public Discourse Project, a non-profit organization founded by the former 9/11 Commissioners, to continue the work of the Commission.
2 Federal Aviation Administration, “Air Traffic Organization Response”, March 21, 2002, 4.
3 The 9/11 Commission Report, 32-33.
4 FBI, Hijackers Timeline (Redacted), 293.
5 FBI, Translation of the interview, conducted by German authorities, of the girlfriend of Ziad Jarrah, September 18, 2001. According to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation’s program, “The Fifth Estate”,
6 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Prosecution Exhibit ST00001B, Final Movement of Hijack Teams, 85.
7 Jere Longman, Among the Heroes (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2002), 1-5.
9 FBI, Investigative Summary, PENTTBOM, United Airlines Flight 93, 265A-NY-280350, 8
10 9/11 Commission Report, 629.
11 9/11 Commission Report, 163, 231 Longman, 87.
12 9/11 Commission Report, 528.
13 John Farmer, The Ground Truth: The Untold Story of America Under Attack on 9/11 (New York:
Riverhead Books, 2009), 107. John Farmer was the Senior Counsel to the 9/11 Commission. His book expands on information and research which the 9/11 Commission staff did not have time to pursue.
15 National Transportation Safety Board, Office of Research and Engineering, Study of Autopilot,
Navigation Equipment, and Fuel Consumption Activity based on United Airlines Flight 93 and American Airlines Flight 77 Digital Flight Data Recorder Information 15. 9/11 Commission Report, 615. The plane’s registration number is N591UA. A Boeing 757 has a wingspan of 124 feet, 10 inches and is 155 feet, 3 inches long.
16 This arrival time is noted on a Flight 93 boarding pass which was recovered at the crash site.
17 9/11 Commission Report, 4.
18 “The Last Night” document is later found at three locations relating to the September 11 attacks. See
19 Flight 93 Oral History Project, various interviews Longman, various chapters
20 Lauren Grandcolas call audio provided to National Park Service by Jack Grandcolas
22 The Cockpit Voice Recorder on Flight 93 has a loop tape that is approximately 30 minutes long, meaning that the earliest recordings from the flight will be replaced by later recordings. When the cockpit
23 Department of Justice, Moussaoui trial exhibit BS01101T 01-455-A 9/11 Commission Report, 587.
24 Shanksville-Stonycreek School District
25 9/11 Commission Report, 5-7.
27 9/11 Commission Report, 599-600.
28 9/11 Commission Report, 6-7, 593-594 Farmer, 124.
29 9/11 Commission Report, 35 Farmer, 155.
30 George W. Bush, Decision Points (New York: Crown Publishers, 2010),126
32 9/11 Commission Report, 600-602 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-455- A
33 9/11 Commission Report, 8, 601-602 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-
34 9/11 Commission Report, 602.
35 9/11 Commission Report, 38 Bush, 127.
36 9/11 Commission Report, 610 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-455-A Farmer, 162.
37 National Transportation Safety Board, Study of Autopilot, 4 FBI, Summary of Penttbom Investigation,
38 9/11 Commission Report, 611 Farmer, 163,166.
39 9/11 Commission Report, 11 Farmer, 189 National Transportation Safety Board, “Specialists Report”,
40 9/11 Commission Report, 616.
41 9/11 Commission Report, 616 Farmer, 189.
42 9/11 Commission Report, 594 Farmer, 219, 240-241.
43 9/11 Commission Report, 616.
44 Federal Aviation Administration, Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, September 2001, 16 Farmer
45 9/11 Commission Report, 612 Farmer, p. 170.
46 Federal Aviation Administration, Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, September 2001, 17 Farmer, 189 9/11 Commission Report, 616.
47 9/11 Commission Report, 617 Farmer, 189.
48 9/11 Commission Report, 617 National Transportation Safety Board, “Specialists Report”, Air Traffic Control Recording, December 21, 2001. 7.
49 9/11 Commission Report, 617.
50 Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, 18.
52 9/11 Commission Report, 12 and footnote 75, Chapter 1: “Jarrah apparently did not know how to
53 9/11 Commission Report, 618.
54 9/11 Commission Report, 618.
55 Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, 20
56 9/11 Commission Report, 618 Farmer, 191.
57 Department of Justice, Transcript of Cockpit Voice Recorder Farmer, 191.
58 9/11 Commission Report, 619. One Airfone was located in each row of the coach section of Flight 93. These air-to-ground phones were installed in the seatback of the seat in front of the passenger.
59 9/11 Commission Report, 613.
60 9/11 Commission Report, 620.
61 9/11 Commission Report, 621.
62 9/11 Commission Report, 621 9/11 Commission, Memorandum for the Record, Interview with Lyzbeth Glick, 9-11 family member, April 22, 2004.
63 9/11 Commission Report, 621 Cockpit Voice Recorder from UA Flight #93, Original 3/1/2002 Major
64 Lauren Grandcolas call audio provided to National Park Service by Jack Grandcolas 9/11 Commission Report, 621.
65 9/11 Commission Report, 622. Air Traffic Control Recording, 9.
66 9/11 Commission Report, 29 Farmer, 185.
67 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-455-A, FBI, Summary of interview with Joseph DeLuca, September 13, 2001.
68 9/11 Commission Report, 622.
69 Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, 20 FAA, Memorandum dated September 19, 2001, Partial Transcript, Aircraft Accident, UAL93, Somerset, PA.
70 9/11 National Memorial and Museum Interactive Timeline
71 Tom Daschle, Like No Other Time: The 107th Congress and the Two Years that Changed America Forever (New York: Crown Publishers, 2003), 110.
72 Laura Bush, Spoken from the Heart (New York: Scribner, 2010),197.
73 National Transportation Safety Board, Office of Research and Engineering, Flight Path Study – United Airlines Flight 93, February 19, 2002, 7.
74 9/11 Commission Report, 623. FBI, transcripts of recorded calls. The 9/11 Commission Staff received
75 9/11 Commission Report, 623.
76 9/11 Commission Report, 623. Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-455-A.
77 9/11 Commission Report, 623.
78 9/11 Commission Report, 623.
79 FBI, report of interview with Philip G. Bradshaw, September 11, 2001 9/11 Commission Report, 623.
80 “Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events”, 22.
81 9/11 Commission Report, 623 statement by Esther Heymann.
82 9/11 Commission Report, 457, 624.
83 9/11 Commission Report, 624.
84 “Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events,” 22.
85 9/11 Commission Report, 624. The transcript of the cockpit voice recorder indicates that their struggle
continues for the duration of the flight.
86 FBI, Transcripts of recorded calls, Edward Felt phone call transcribed September 11, 2001.
87 9/11 Commission Report, 624.
88 9/11 Commission Report, 624.
89 Flight Path Study – United Airlines Flight 93, February 19, 2002, 2.
90 9/11 Commission Report, 305.
91 “Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events”, 23.
92 9/11 Commission Report, 625.
93 Transcript from Cockpit Voice Recorder from United Airlines Flight #93, 10.
94 9/11 Commission Report, 625.
95 Transcription of calls to Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder 1 time is approximate. “Diamond T” is a local name for the area, referring to the job name of the surface coal mine that had operated at this site for many years but was no longer active in 2001.
96 Transcription of calls to Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder 3 time is approximate. Trip Sheet, Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company, September 11, 2001.
97 Conversation with Shanksville Stonycreek School personnel transcription of calls to Somerset County
98 Transcription of calls to Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder 1 time is approximate.
99 FAA, personnel statements, Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center FAA, Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, 23.
100 9/11 Commission Report, 46. In the course of its research, the staff of the 9/11 Commission identified
inaccuracies in the official testimony given to the Commission by the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in regard to the timeline of events on September 11, 2001.
These erroneous statements first appeared in press releases, testimony before Congress, and reports compiled by the agencies in the days after the crash and were repeated in print and television interviews, books and films over the next several years, including the Air Force official history of September 11, Air War Over America. Specifically, the Commission identified the following four erroneous statements: 1.
The FAA notified the DoD at 9:16 a.m. of the United Flight 93 hijacking. The actual time was 10:07 a.m.
The FAA notified DoD at 9:24 a.m. of the American Flight 77 hijacking. The actual time was 9:34 a.m.
DoD scrambled fighters from Langley Air Force Base in response to the hijackings of United Flight 93 and American Flight 77. The fighters were actually scrambled in response to an erroneous report that American Flight 11 was heading south toward Washington, D.C. 4. DoD was tracking United Flight 93
101 Transcription of calls to Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder 3 time is approximate. Transcript of Flight 93 National Memorial Oral History Project interview
103 9/11 Commission Report, 42-43 Farmer, 225.
104 9/11 Commission Report, 315.
105 Transcription of 9-1-1 Calls, Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder, time is approximate.
106 9/11 Commission Report, 311.
107 9/11 Commission Report, 42-43 Farmer, 241.
108 9/11 Commission Report, 29 Lynn Spencer, Touching History (New York: Free Press, 2008), 269.
109 9/11 Commission Report, 326.
110 Bob Woodward, Bush at War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003) 26.
111 Mike O’Brien, “Ridge Promises Forceful Response”, Daily American [Somerset, PA], September 12, 2001.
112 Lisa Kozleski, “In Somerset County cornfield, ‘a large, gaping hole . . . very little debris’” Allentown [PA] Morning Call, September 12 2001.
113 Mike O’Brien, “Ridge Promises Forceful Response”, Daily American [Somerset, PA], September 12, 2001.
114 Editors, National Review, We Will Prevail: President George W. Bush on War, Terrorism, and
Swedish soprano Jenny Lind, whose purity of voice and natural singing style earned her the nickname “the Swedish nightingale,” made her American debut at the Castle Garden Theatre in New York City on September 11, 1850. The appearance inaugurated a ninety-three-stop American tour which was arranged by showman and entertainment entrepreneur Phineas T. Barnum. The tour came on the heels of a fantastically successful string of appearances in England where the large packed-in crowds gave rise to the term, “Jenny Lind crush.”
Jenny Lind… Studio of Mathew Brady, [Sept. 14, 1850]. Daguerreotypes. Prints & Photographs Division
The great event of the evening…was Jenny Lind’s appearance and her complete triumph. She has a most exquisite, powerful and really quite peculiar voice, so round, soft and flexible…
Queen Victoria’s Journal, May 4, 1847
Jenny Lind was born Johanna Maria Lind on October 6, 1820 in Stockholm, Sweden. She made her debut in the opera Der Freischütz in Stockholm in 1838. Her fame grew in the mid-1840s as she made a series of successful appearances in Germany and Austria. In May 1847 she made her first appearance on a London stage, and it was in England that her status as a “celebrity” reached full force. In 1849, Lind decided to stop performing in operas and instead continued in her career as a recitalist and an oratorio singer.
Castle Garden, New York: From the battery. N Currier, 1848. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division
Nearly ninety years after Jenny Lind’s tour of the United States, Mrs. Isabell Barnwell still remembered the sensation created by the singer’s 1850-51 tour. Of growing up in Hamilton County, Florida during the Civil War period, she recalled:
Music was a delight to all of us…We four sisters used to sing a great deal…We kept up with the music of the times, having quite a stock of sheet music on hand…I have several of those old volumes now, one composed entirely of Jenny Lind’s repertoire when she made her long-remembered American appearance.
[Mrs. Isabell Barnwell]. Rose Shepherd, interviewer Jacksonville, Florida, February 6, 1939. American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940. Manuscript Division
Lind’s renditions of popular songs met with great acclaim and helped make her one of the few opera singers to earn a large popular following. Fashionable new polkas and waltzes were choreographed and given her name. The “Jenny Lind Polka,” performed by fiddler John Selleck and recorded in 1939 in Camino, California, is a testament to Lind’s enduring influence on the popular imagination.
The “Jenny Lind Polka” and “Jenny Lind’s Set of Waltz Quadrilles” are described in a popular dance manual published in 1858, Howe’s Complete Ball-room Hand Book. This is just one of the many nineteenth-century dance and ballroom etiquette manuals included in the collection, An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals, ca. 1490 to 1920. Browse the Contributors list for author, title, and publication information for the 210 books included in the collection.
How to Dance, A Complete Ball-room and Party Guide. New York: Tousey & Small, 1878. From Western Social Dance, a Special Presentation included in An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals, ca. 1490 to 1920. Music Division
Here Is New York Photos
In response to the World Trade Center tragedy, and to the unprecedented flood of images that have resulted from it, a unique exhibition and sale of…
Voices of 9.11
Voices of 9.11 is a unique collection of personal video testimonies recorded in 2002 and 2003. At a time when language to describe the experience was…
FDNY Incident Action Plans
The Fire Department of New York published a daily report, called the FDNY Incident Action Plan or IAP, that was a coordinating communication devise…
Copyright © 2002, Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media and American Social History Project/Center for Media and Learning
Ring of Power (2006) [FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM, HISTORY, SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS]
Every question that you may have is answered in this highly researched 2006 documentary concerning this global criminal network enslaving very man, woman and child on this planet.
From the mystery religions of ancient Egypt to the Zionist role in 9/11, “Ring Of Power” unrevises 4000 years of revisionist human history with never – before – seen revelations. “Ring Of Power” puzzles together the pieces of a giant puzzle into one BIG PICTURE documentary series.
Part I: 9/11 THE UNTOLD STORY (38 min.) Half the world believes Muslims were responsible for 9/11. The other half believes Israeli Zionists were responsible. Who’s right?
Part II: HIDDEN EMPIRE (22 min.) The world’s most powerful empire is not the U.S.A. It is an empire that insiders call “Empire Of The City”.
Part III: TRAIL OF THE PHARAOHS (25 min.) Did the Biblical Abraham really live to be 175? Did Moses really turn staffs into snakes and rivers into blood?
Part IV: GOD AND THE QUEEN (30 min.) Genealogy charts show that British and French royalty are descendants of Mary Magdalene and Jesus Christ. Is it true?
Part V: ALL THE QUEEN’S MEN (22 min.) How rich and powerful is Queen Elizabeth II?
Part VI: THE GODFATHERS (30 min.) They scammed control of the Bank of England and the U.S. Federal Reserve, then they found GOD — Gold, Oil and Drugs.
Part VII: CHEATING AT MONOPOLY (52 min.) How many people would play a game of monopoly if the banker was cheating and fixing the rules? Over 6 billion.
Part VIII: ASSES OF EVIL (29 min.) The New World Order Mafia are invisible rulers who make puppets out of politicians, heroes out of villains and villains out of heroes.
Part IX: KING OF HEARTS (22 min.) The ultimate goal of “insiders” is to disarm the world and create one world empire under one world ruler. Who is he?
Part X: SOLUTIONS (28 min.) Protesting and writing letters to deaf politicians doesn’t work. What does work?
The Producer is an experienced, award winning documentary filmmaker who, as a child, learned that her father was a member of the secretive cult of Freemasonry. She recalls many arguments between her parents over her father’s secret meetings and the exclusion of women from the brotherhood. The Masonic ring that her father wore had been passed down from father to son over the generations. When she asked her father about the meaning of the letter “G” and the compass and square on his ring, she got no response. As an adult, she decided to investigate. That investigation grew into four years of intensive research into the identity and history of the diabolical globalists who she calls the “Ring Of Power”. Their goal is one World Empire and one world ruler.
Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.
"Empty Sky": A Personal History of September 11, 2001
An editor for Junior Scholastic recalls how the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, changed her family — and the nation.
On the evening of September 11, 2001, six dads from my hometown of Rumson, New Jersey, didn&rsquot come home from work. Their cars sat empty in the parking lot of the commuter ferry they&rsquod taken into Manhattan that morning. Their seats at the dinner table have been empty ever since.
My brother Mike was one of those dads. He and more than 2,700 other people were killed at the World Trade Center in New York City when ten members of Al Qaeda, an Islamic terrorist group, crashed two hijacked planes into the Twin Towers.
The 9/11 attacks were the deadliest on U.S. soil since the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in December 1941, and they would change the nation profoundly.
I was on a commuter ferry headed to downtown Manhattan when the first plane struck the North Tower. It was 8:46 a.m. I knew that my brother, who had started a job as an equities trader at Cantor Fitzgerald a week earlier, would already be at his desk. I would soon learn that he was on the 104th floor of that 110-story building.
&ldquoAs you can see,&rdquo the ferry captain said over his bullhorn, &ldquoa plane just crashed into the World Trade Center.&rdquo
We could see the Trade Center and the skyscrapers of Lower Manhattan &mdash still 40 minutes away &mdash with aching clarity. As Mike, an avid bodysurfer, surely would have noted, it was a perfect beach day, crisp and cloudless.
I tried him on his cell phone several times but couldn&rsquot get through. Service had already become sporadic so I couldn&rsquot reach his wife, Lynn, or any other family members either.
As the ferry continued across the Hudson River to New York, we watched smoke spewing from the upper floors of the North Tower.
At first, it seemed as if the crash had been some terrible accident. Then, just 17 minutes later, a second plane sliced through the top of the South Tower.
Everyone gasped. America, we realized, was under attack.
Still, we sailed on. We passed the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, all eyes glued to the two towers. While smoke billowed from one, orange fireballs ringed the other.
Paper and shards of glass began to rain down on the streets, and thick black soot coated much of the sky. I tried to picture Mike and his best friend, Michael Tucker, or &ldquoTuck,&rdquo who also worked at Cantor, racing down the stairs to safety.
When our ferry docked in Lower Manhattan, we were instructed not to get off. Instead, we would take on people who had fled the Trade Center and nearby office buildings, and head back to New Jersey.
I looked for my brother and Tuck in the crowd on the pier. If anyone could escape that building, I thought, it was those two guys. Mike had lifted weights since high school and was a great basketball player. And Tuck was as big and strong as the guys on the Syracuse University football team he once roomed with. As we sailed back to New Jersey, the smell of death and burning plastic began to fill the air. But nothing prepared us for what happened next. We watched in stunned silence as the South Tower collapsed in a massive swirl of ash. It was 10:05. Less than a half-hour later, the North Tower fell, leaving us, in the words of Bruce Springsteen, with nothing but an empty sky.
We soon learned that there had been other attacks. Shortly after 9:30 a.m., hijackers had crashed a plane into the Pentagon, the U.S. military headquarters outside Washington, D.C., killing 189 people. And in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, passengers on a fourth plane, known as Flight 93, brought down their hijacked jet in a field when they realized it was headed for either the White House or the Capitol. All 44 people onboard died.
That morning, my brother&rsquos three children and thousands of others were called from their classrooms. My niece Regan, then 8, remembers an unfamiliar teacher arriving at the door during art class.
&ldquoCome with me, please,&rdquo he said, &ldquoand bring your belongings.&rdquo When Regan and her brother and sister got home, their mom was in the driveway, her face ashen.
They went inside and turned on the TV. &ldquoI&rsquod never seen those two buildings before,&rdquo Regan says. &ldquoFlames and chunks were tumbling down. &lsquoYour father is in there,&rsquo my mom managed to say. Then she burst into tears.&rdquo
A decade later, those memories are still raw for everyone who lived through that day. &ldquoAny time I hear &lsquo9/11,&rsquo it just brings everything back,&rdquo says John Pollinger, who was the police chief of Middletown, New Jersey, in 2001. His town of 68,000 lost 37 people that day.
Pollinger was at the ferry landing when my boat got back. &ldquoPeople were shell-shocked, stunned, covered with dust,&rdquo he says. &ldquoI told my detectives, &lsquoGet on the ferry. Go over there. See what you can do.&rsquo&rdquo
In the end, there was little anyone could do besides tend to grieving families and try to recover the bodies of those who had died.
Life Without Dad
My brother&rsquos children have had to grow up without their dad. He has missed their field hockey games, skateboarding competitions, proms, and graduations. He didn&rsquot live to see their funny texts or Facebook posts.
Most important, he&rsquos missed seeing the extraordinary young adults they&rsquove become. Thousands of other families have faced the same heartbreaking loss.
More than 400 firefighters and other rescue workers who went into the burning buildings to try to save people like Mike and Tuck also died on 9/11. Countless others spent months at the site, which came to be known as Ground Zero, searching through the rubble for bodies, trying to give families some measure of peace. Often, all they found were bone fragments.
Many Ground Zero­ workers have since developed severe lung ailments from the pollutants they inhaled. Some have died. Those remaining live with the trauma of what they saw.
If there&rsquos a silver lining, it&rsquos that our friends and people we didn&rsquot even know were there to look out for us. They stuck by us when we needed them most. My family and so many others lost a lot on 9/11. We also incurred a debt that we can never repay.
This article originally appeared with the title &ldquoEmpty Sky&rdquo in the September 5, 2011, issue of Junior Scholastic.
9/11 attacks rare footage video (Not suitable for children)
Also Read - Viral Video Shows Man Flying in New York&rsquos Times Square, People Are Reminded of Green Goblin | Watch
The September 11 terror attacks in New York, United States of America, shocked the world in 2001. The famous twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York were smashed to pieces by two passenger airplanes hijacked by Osama bin Laden&rsquos Al-Qaeda terror group. Almost 5,000 people died in the first-of-is-kind attack, although the official figure is 3,000, as the landmark towers made of steel were brought down to ground by the impact. Also Read - Alert Indian-Origin Driver Stops Train From Hitting Asian Man Pushed Onto Tracks in New York
The Pentagon building was also attacked with a plane on the same day, although some reports claim it wasn&rsquot. On the 13th anniversary of the 9/11 terror attacks in New York, we share a special video with rare footage of reactions of bystanders outside the World Trade Center right after the attack. The first plane attacking the WTC, smoke, fire, people falling down from the towers or jumping down in a bid to save themselves &ndash all this can be seen in this video. Also Read - Indian-Origin Man Charged With Killing, Sexually Abusing His Mom on Mother's Day in New York
Seeing the footage will send a chill down your spine even if you have seen enough of 9/11 videos. This footage is not suitable for children and people who are sentimental. General viewer discretion advised.
9/11 Video Accounts Of The Terrorist Attacks: Remembering The Events Of September 11 (VIDEOS)
Re-watching footage from 9/11, regardless of the anniversary, is undoubtedly eerie, but for some, remembering that terrible day is often necessary in order to pay tribute to those who lost their lives.
For others, especially a generation growing up in the post-9/11 world, watching the footage helps form at least a partial understanding of the attacks.
Technology was able to preserve the memory of the events, for better or worse. Now, the clips that were once only considered a dramatic memory of a tragic day have become a part of history.
The availability of video cameras and recording devices at the time made 9/11 possibly the most recorded tragedy in national history. Though 2001 pre-dates the widespread use of smartphones and cell phone cameras, there were many New Yorkers, and Americans in general for that matter, within arms-reach of a camcorder.
However, there is still little footage of the first plane flying into the North Tower of the World Trade Center, since few eyes were on the sky until it happened. There is also no footage of the plane crashing in Pennsylvania (the most widely seen footage is from after the crash), and there's little coverage of the crash at the Pentagon.
But the moment the second tower was hit is well documented. As many Manhattanites focused their cameras on the first tower burning, they witnessed United Airlines Flight 175 fly into the South Tower. The reactions, as can be heard in many of the videos below, were dramatic.
When the towers began to fall nearly an hour later, many had long been filming the incident, and news cameras were all over the scene.
With all eyes on New York -- a city that has long housed national media titans such as CNN, ABC, NBC and Fox News -- millions of Americans were exposed to the attacks in near real time. From impact to collapse, it was all captured and, for the most part, shown live on television sets throughout the country, and perhaps the world.
The coverage was so in-depth that sites such as the Internet Archive have collected enough footage to virtually replay the day.
We've also provided a number of videos from 9/11, which can be seen below.
WARNING: Some of the language in the videos below may not be suitable for all ages.
In Perspective: Where does 9/11 stand as a turning point in U.S. history?
And so it has been a decade — quite a long one, when you think about it. You know the story — how the attacks of September 11, 2001, led to two long, expensive, hot wars and an endless cold one in the shadows how the George W. Bush administration reacted, was re-elected, and saw much of its counter-terror program not repealed, but ratified by President Obama.
What about for the rest of us? It has gone in and out of fashion to act as though America overreacted to the attacks, that we somehow lack the European or the Middle Eastern capacity to get on with things amid the death and the debris. But if a failure to grow accustomed to terrorism is a vice, it is a vice worth having.
I believe history will come to view 9/11 as an event on par with November 22, 1963, the date on which John F. Kennedy was murdered, cutting short a presidency that was growing ever more promising. Dreams died that day in Dallas it is easy to imagine the 1960s turning out rather differently had President Kennedy lived. Would America have grown so cynical so fast about the role of government had the more politically appealing JFK presided over Washington? Would the Vietnam War have been fought the way it was had he survived, or would he have found a better way forward than Lyndon Johnson did? Unknowable, of course, but intriguing.
We remember Dallas because it was an act of unspeakable violence captured on film that ended a life and changed our lives. So it is with 9/11. Thousands more died that day than on November 22, 1963, but the implications in terms of politics and culture have much in common. A surge of faith and patriotism followed by disillusionment grief that turned to disappointment a particular tragedy whose universal waves are felt long afterward, far away.
In that sense, that profound sense, November 22 has never ended. And neither, truth be told, has September 11, no matter how many years have passed.