Avaris is built and set as capital of Hyksos.
c. 1782 BCE - c. 1570 BCE
c. 1580 BCE
Conflict between the Hyksos at Avaris and Egyptians of Thebes breaks out; Theban king Ta'O killed in battle.
c. 1570 BCE
Ahmose I defeats and expels the Hyksos from Egypt and destroy their capital Avaris.
c. 1570 BCE
Hyksos are driven from Egypt by Ahmose I who initiates the period of the New Kingdom.
The Knights Templar were, therefore, knights of the sun, the moon, and stars. They were an esoteric order that encapsulated the secret teaching of the solar, lunar, and stellar cults of antiquity. Even the most cursory perusal of the symbolism that this order and its affiliates employed confirms this to be true. The Templar Order was a repository for the arcane lore of ages, for the astrological gnosis that exalted the hierarchs of Christian (Atonist) Rome but that had to remain unseen and unknown to the common uninitiated believer. In short, the Templars were descendants of the Cult of Aton. In fact, the creators of the Knights Templar were the descendants of the Merovingian dynasty headquartered in France and that, according to the three authors of Holy Blood, Holy Grail, had the biblical Jesus among their family members. This powerful dynasty has been traced by some researchers back to the Amorites and to the Hyksos pharaohs of Egypt.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Let us ever bear in mind from now on that the generic terms "Israelite" and "Hebrew" denote those people who had spent time in Egypt and who were most probably of Hyksos origin.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The Jews were not eager to emphasize their blood-ties to the royal dynasties of Egypt for two main reasons. Firstly, if they admitted to it openly they would have only a short time to glow since it would then come out how they were, in fact, illegitimate invaders, marauders, pillagers, and imposters who entered at a time when Egypt was drowning in social chaos. If they admitted to being Hyksos kings they would admit being the infamous "Leper Kings" so despised by the native Egyptians. They would have to admit to their looting and pillaging and to the fact that they had inhabited the fertile Nile Delta for over 300 years and accomplished next to nothing of significance, architecturally or artistically. They would have had to admit that they were renegades and that they were forcibly expelled by consensus and public uprising against them. And they would have to admit, should the facts ever come out, that their "Moses" - the real life Akhenaton - had an incestuous relationship with his megalomaniacal, foreign-blooded mother Queen Tiye. Additionally, they would have to admit to the world that their great savior or Messiah, Joshua (Tutankhamun), was the son, not of god, but of an incestuous relationship between his own father and his grandmother. None of this, as we can see, is in the least bit aggrandizing. Secondly, they would have to explain why they have been seeking the limelight of history as god's "chosen" ones. They would need to explain how they could have been condemning every other culture and nation and every other theology as if they were uniquely spiritually endowed when, in fact, they were originally a bunch of treacherous, bloodthirsty, pantheists benefiting from their sojourn in a land of enlightened adepts. Yes, such admissions would certainly tarnish their image. So, it was decided that the truth concerning their origins and history would be obscured and that great efforts would be made to degrade and berate Egypt and its people.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
It might be asked why the Levites and the Cult of Aton, after their exile and ruthless occupation of Judea, chose to downplay all connection to Egypt and alter their titles and personal names. Why did they refer to themselves as "Levites," "Israelites," and "Judites," etc, when they were as we have shown, eighteenth dynasty pharaohs recently departed from Egypt? And we might ask why they would not wish to emphasize that their patriarchs (Abraham, Jacob, and others) were linked to the Hyksos kings who dominated Lower Egypt for over 300 years. One would think that they could not resist this flaunting of their reputation and status.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
In general terms, whenever the code term "red" is used in the Old Testament, it denotes the Hyksos dynasty.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The hordes who tended Akhenaton and his court, and who accompanied him after his exile, were Levites from the city of Avaris (Zoan or Zion) and Amarna. They were descendants of the Hyksos Kings who had invaded Upper (Southern) Egypt over 300 years before (at the opening of the 13th dynasty). No, the "Israelites" were not the people who accompanied the pharaoh they were the pharaoh and his immediate Egyptian coterie.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
So it appears that the "Jews" of later ages would have their work cut out for them. They had to go to great lengths to downplay their connection to the Hyksos pharaohs and to obscure the nature of their heinous deeds in the land of the pyramids. This is why they chose to re-script history to make their alleged ancestors appear ragged homeless "slaves." It was a comedown, to be sure. But it was better that history recorded them as oppressed outsiders rather than as tyrannical conquerors who raped Egypt of its many treasures. But the secret could not be kept forever. Clever scholars began to uncover the truth. Sigmund Freud, for instance, noticed that Jews and Egyptians shared the rite of circumcision that was not employed by neighboring peoples. He noticed that the name "Moses" was of Egyptian origins and that it was most unusual for a highborn son of pharaohs to go round killing guards and taking the cause of "oppressed" slaves.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Egyptologists have been conspicuously reticent to say what god or gods the Hyksos really worshipped. As we have already mentioned, we are told they were predominantly venerators of the god Set.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Like this writer, the researcher Ralph Ellis does not buy into the migration of Abraham and Sarah story. He believes that Abraham and Sarah did not come from Sumeria into Egypt in the manner commonly described. Ellis, like the great revisionist Comyns Beaumont before him, believes that Abraham (from Ab'ram meaning "of Ra the Father") was the first pharaoh of the Hyksos dynasty. Abraham may have gone with his sister and wife Sarah towards Thebes (in southern Egypt) after a famine broke out in his own Northern kingdom. According to Ellis it was during this journey that the Theban king fell in love with Sarai and took her for his wife. The Southern pharaoh in question was none other than Tuthmosis III. And so, it was he, and not Abraham, who was the true father of the so-called Twelve Tribes of Israel. They were in fact the Twelve Tribes of Aton. Since the Hyksos were rulers in the North (Lower Egypt, Delta region), they would have had dominion over the pyramids and over Heliopolis, the capital of solar worship. Hence, Akhenaton's zeal for just that kind of worship and iconography. Ellis suggests that prior to the reign of Akhenaton, the Levite Yuya (the biblical Joseph) acted as an agent for the expelled Hyksos and returned to ingratiate himself with the pharaoh Amenhotep I. Ellis believes that he was successful and became a powerful presence behind the thrones of Tuthmosis III, Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep III,and Akhenaton. Yuya and his family were the richest personalities in the entire world at that time, after the pharaoh himself.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Regarding the Hyksos connection, the author Ralph Ellis has established that the syllable Hyk had two meanings that might easily have been confused. The term can mean either "captive," or "king," depending upon whether the "y" is pronounced like an "I" (as in "Nick"), or as "Y" (as in"Mike") Ergo, historians can easily misidentify the Hyksos people. If modern Jews and Christians can fool the world by saying that their ancestors date back to "slaves" and "captives" rather than to "kings," then the prospects for true understanding of religion and scripture, as well as for the overall state of the world, are few indeed.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The first thing to clarify when it comes to the "Israelites" concerns the origin of the name "Israel." This name was not original to the people mentioned in the bible whose center was Jerusalem. None of the cities of the Hyksos pharaohs and their people bear the title "Israel." The term originated with the Irish and with the Phoenicians who had erected prominent and sophisticated cities all over Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, and the Levant. The Phoenicians were originally of Irish extraction and they had some of their most important bases in Ireland and Scotland. Not only were the Phoenicians expert sailors but they made good use of the land bridges that once existed between Scandinavia and England, and between England and Ireland.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
It is now generally conceded that the Hyksos, who invaded and held Egypt in the early part of the second millennium BC, were Semites from Syria. The late Professor W. M. Mueller of Philadelphia, in his work on Egyptian Mythology, has informed us that a considerable part of Egyptian religious thought was influenced by AmarruAlbert T. Clay / <cite>The Origin of Biblical Traditions (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
Ralph Ellis speculates that the Hyksos were close relatives of both the Minoans of Crete and the Philistines of Canaan. This theory is endorsed by the authors Alan Butler and Stephen Dafoe who have made extensive researches into the Knights Templar and Minoan civilization. There is also evidence that the Hyksos had settlements in Greece and Italy.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Scholars believe the Hyksos set up a new capital at Jerusalem, while author Ralph Ellis believes they were able, during the period of the 22nd dynasty, to maintain a base at Tanis in the North-Eastern Delta region. Evidence suggests that the reconquest of Egypt was never far from their minds.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Regardless of where they originated, it is likely that the Hyksos people had close ties with tribes in Canaan.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The Hyksos were Asiatics who filtered into the eastern Egyptian Delta around the middle of the Thirteenth Dynasty taking advantage of a period of internal Egyptian weakness, probably bringing with them and using to their own advantage, the chariot. The Thirteenth Dynasty rulers had moved the capital of the country north to a centrally located town called Itjawy near Memphis, near the apex of the Delta. Seizing the kingship, the Hyksos ruled Egypt for over one hundred years, composing the Fifteenth Dynasty. The heterogeneous Sixteenth Dynasty was partly Hyksos, but also composed of local Egyptian rulers who had no choice but to go along with their new overlords. This general period of Egyptian weakness and foreign occupation is called the Second Intermediate Period, or more popularly, the Hyksos Period. The local princes in Thebes in the south formed the Seventeenth Dynasty when the Hyksos overran Itjawy and forced the ephemeral rulers there into subservience. These vigorous Theban rulers kept the flame of Egyptian independence alive and finally were able to lead a war of liberation that expelled the Asiatics. The Hyksos rulers and their military forces were driven from Egypt. Egypt was free, and Ahmose and his successors of the Eighteenth Dynasty could turn to the task of reconstruction. Some historians have linked the biblical story of Joseph with the Hyksos regime
Wikipedia / <cite>quoted by Michael Tsarion</cite>
Pharaoh Ahmose I and his queen Ah hotep were members of the Lunar Cult which predated the Solar Theocracy by millennia. This cult had a center at Thebes and it was the Thebans who were most oppressed by the regime of the Hyksos. The phoneme Ah (in Ahmose and Ah hotep) was the name of the moon god. The members of the Lunar Cult of Thebes were rivals of the priests of Heliopolis whom they considered little better than the Hyksos. The conflicts in Egypt of which we speak were not merely political strife. They were primarily theological in nature.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The Hyksos did not have a good reputation among the Egyptians, whose national traditions depicted them as plunderers of cities and temples, cruel and impious barbarians faithful only to their god Seth, that veritable incarnation of evil in the Osiris legend
Joseph Meleze Modrzejewski / <cite>The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
The Hyksos can enter tombs just as easily as water can but whilst the Hyksos can also strip the pyramid casings, overturn the cult statues, open up secret places to the public and end the bread offerings with ease, water would find this extremely difficult. The Tempest Stele text is actually alluding to the desecration of the sacred temples throughout (Middle) Egypt by the Hyksos-IsraelitesRalph Ellis / <cite>Tempest and Exodus (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
The Tempest Stele confirms that the Hyksos pillaged the land they had once ruled and left with coffers full of treasure. These facts further render laughable the image of god's impoverished, oppressed, desert-wandering "chosen people" presented in the early books of the bible.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The departing Hyksos (600,000 according to the Bible) took the wealth of Lower Egypt with them. It was a victory for Esau, but in some respects a hollow one, for the entire region had been stripped clean looted for every last coin. Esau visited the town of Avaris, and on seeing the devastation and wanton greed for riches, he declared that this terrible deed should be called from henceforth, Avarice!Ralph Ellis / <cite>Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
Recent Investigations have revealed the biblical exodus story to be a veiled and doctored reference to two events that occurred centuries apart. It refers to the mass expulsion of the Hyksos people under the reign of Ahmose I (1575-1550 BC) and also to the removal of the renegade Pharaoh Akhenaton at the end of the 18th dynasty. This first exodus of the Hyksos was an immense affair and took a long time to complete. The Hyksos cities such as Memphis and Avaris were evacuated and the quarter of a million inhabitants from this Avaris plus those from other towns and cities left a trail of ruin in their wake. Although the process of removal was slow, and even though Ahmose was compelled to pay an enormous amount of money to hasten the departure of his powerful enemies, Egypt was liberated during his regency.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
At the beginning of the eighteenth dynasty, during the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose I (Aahmes, Amasis, or Amos), the majority of the Hyksos people were finally routed and expelled from Egypt. By way of emphatic negotiation and financial incentive, the Theban pharaoh succeeded in bringing their cruel and destructive 300-year rule to an end. Pharaoh Ahmose was directed by the El Kab family descended from early Egyptian feudal lords. The ancient texts describe his great victories and his own stature:Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Some scholars imagine the Hyksos to have been horseback riding Hittites while others deem them Greeks, Syrians, Amorites, Minoans, Scythians, Hurrians, or even Trojans. One fact that suggests that the Hyksos were long term inhabitants of Egypt, rather than invaders, is their veneration of the ancient god Set (Seth, Sutekh, Seteh, or Seb) who had dominion over Lower (Northern) Egypt. During the time of the Hyksos, Set became part of the Heliopolitan Ennead. Set was god of the dark places, wild weather, and of the inhospitable red desert burned by the sun called Tesherit. This word means "red lands." Red was the color of Set, so it is interesting that this color should be frequently and conspicuously employed by corporations and governments (red squares, St. George's Red Cross, Red Coats, red tape, red carpets, red ribbons, red military stripes and lapels, red roses, etc). Some researchers point to this as evidence that the Hyksos were fair-complexioned westerners known as "Edomites."
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The Lamb Skin is employed by Christians, Jews, and Masons. It was, and is, a symbol denoting the Hyksos dynasty of Egypt, known as the "Shepherd Kings."Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Allegedly, another Egyptian term for the Hyksos was Shasu. This term meant "Shepherds," and we might note how frequently this term is employed in the bible.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The Hyksos, then, were nothing less than the pharaohs of Egypt during the fifteenth and sixteenth dynasties of Egypt. This is a period, under the classical dating of Egypt, that equates very well with the projected lifetime of the biblical Abraham. In this case, Abraham was not only a military leader, but he was quite possibly a pharaoh of Egypt as wellRalph Ellis / <cite>Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
So, we now discover that the famous Israelites were powerful kings in one of the greatest civilizations on Earth. We find that they were not oppressed captives or slaves, and that they were one and the same people as the so-called "Hyksos" people. Within the last ten years or so, authors such as Ralph Ellis, Moustafa Gadalla, and Ahmed Osman (following on from masters such as Comyns Beaumont, Immanuel Velikovsky, Sigmund Freud, and others), have uncovered the close ties between the Hyksos and the so-called "Israelites" of the Old Testament. We believe that the Israelites, or Hyksos, were Scythians displaced from Ireland during the great Age of Catastrophe. We believe they were the "Shepherd Kings of foreign lands," that historians have been so hard pressed to identify. We believe they had several communities in Egypt, and that they were originally, before their physical displacement, of Irish ancestry. If the Scythian-Hykson used the title "Israelite," it was probably because this was the name of the ancient Irish Iesa or Isa, the god of light. If the name Isa is combined with Ra, one derives Isara or Isra, which can soon be rendered Israel. The final phoneme el means "minister" or "messenger." Iesa and Ra were lords of light, so the combination of names by members of the Solar Cult is perfectly understandable.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Eventually, the Hyksos moved northwards and overran Memphis. They established their first main capital there. They later moved to Avaris that, according to biblical tradition, was the same city occupied by the Levite followers of Moses. Avaris was basically a garrison town held by over a quarter of a million men in arms. Avaris was also known as Zoan. This latter term is close to Zion. If it is the same word then the constant references by Jews to the time of "Zion" refer to the dynasty of the despotic Hyksos people to whom they were related. According to Ralph Ellis the patriarch known as Abraham (from Ab'ram - meaning "of Ra the Father") was the first pharaoh of these despised Hyksos people. His sister and wife Sarah eventually married the pharaoh of Southern Egypt forming a union with that rival and more native house. This alliance would have resulted in future mixed marriages (like Amenhotep III's with Tiye and Yuya with Asenath, etc), and to claims to the throne from foreign-blooded heirs. The majority of the pharaohs of the eighteenth dynasty fit this type.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Josephus, the patriotic Jewish historian, who believed that the Hyksos were "the children of Israel", quoted Manetho as saying that "they were a people of ignoble race who had confidence to invade our country, which they subdued easily without having to fight a battle. They set our towns on fire they destroyed the temples of the gods, and caused the people to suffer every kind of barbarityDonald Mackenzie / <cite>Egyptian Myth and Legend (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
According to the history books, the Hyksos arrived during a time of unrest and anarchy in Egypt when the pharaoh was Neshi. Neshi was a negro from Nubia who managed to seize the throne for himself after a violent struggle with two weak successors of the 12th dynasty pharaoh Neferkhara (of the Sebekhotep kings) whose vast empire extended from Nubia to the Mediterranean. Under the corrupt and inept rule of Neshi, Egypt was vulnerable before its enemies. According to most experts, it was at this time the Hyksos attacked and established their own despotic empire. Some Hyksos historians believe that the fearsome invaders were aided by the inept imposter dynasty of Nubians that rose after the fall of the Sebekhoteps, and by the many refugees and immigrants who, though granted shelter in Egypt during times of want, cared little for the welfare of the land of their hosts. The Hyksos strengthened their numbers with these self-seeking envious foreigners and found Egypt for the taking. After their successful takeover they kept open the country's borders and all foreigners were bid welcome into Egypt. The reign of their Pharaoh Salatis opened Egypt's fifteenth dynasty. The native Egyptians prayed to their old gods for release from those they referred to as the "leper kings," the "impure ones," and the "polluted."
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The dragon was the emblem of the Dragon Court of Egypt, the Brotherhood of the Snake, headed by the Hyksos pharaohs and later by the renegade Akhenaton (Moses). This so-called "Dragon Bloodline" still exists. It was preserved in the Merovingian, Carolingian, Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart, Hapsburg, Hanoverian, Savoy, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Battenberg, Bowes Lyon, Guelph, and Windsor dynasties (and others).Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The chiefs of the so-called "Israelites" had been pharaohs themselves and were related to, and descended from, the Hyksos pharaohs of the 13th dynasty. Their great capitals were Memphis and Avaris. Avaris was later renamed Pi-Rameses but had been known as Zaru and Zion. It was situated in the "Goshen" of the bible, in the Eastern zone of the Nile Delta. Suggestively, it was the city where Akhenaton had grown up and been educated. The Atonist coterie, who were expelled along with Akhenaton were, like the pharaoh himself, members of this Hyksos dynasty of wealthy and powerful kings and priests. The Hyksos, we believe, were connected to, and possibly identical with, the Scythians of Northern Europe. These Scythians were Celts (or more correctly Gaels) displaced to Europe after the Age of Catastrophe. They were, we believe, originally from the British Isles. If, therefore, it is true that the Hyksos and the Israelites were one and the same people, as serveral investigators now allege, it means that the Israelites were in fact, in their earliest incarnation, Gaels from the North-West. We believe the legends and the etymology prove this to be very likely.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Following the death of the last 12th Dynasty Pharaoh, c.1786 BC, Egypt plunged into another Dark Age. This time the cause does not seem to have been internal revolution but rather the invasion of the country by a mysterious people called the Hyksos. These foreigners, called variously the "Shepherd Kings" or "Sea Peoples," controlled the country for some two hundred years. This is very interesting from the Biblical point of view, for if there is any truth in the story of Abraham's migration and the subsequent settling of the children of Israel in Egypt, then it has to have happened around this timeAdrian G. Gilbert / <cite>Magi: The Quest for a Secret Tradition (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
If Akhenaton (and his family before him) was of the Hyksos bloodline, then his bizarre and sacrilegious actions would make a great deal of sense. But it should be realized, in any case, that Akhenaton was not the legitimate heir to the throne of Egypt. His mother Tiye was not of Egyptian blood and was not acknowledged as being a spiritual "daughter" of the god Amen-Ra, that a female had to be in order to have legal rights to the throne. Since Tiye did not possess this right,her son Akhenaton did not either. It can be argued that almost every pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty (as well as those infidel "Hyksos" kings from the 13th dynasty to the 18th) were not, in the true spiritual sense, legitimate pharaohs. Nevertheless, Akhenaton certainly was not. Ergo, when he and his cult of Levite followers were deposed they naturally found it expedient to obscure their identity ("Israelites," "Judites," "Levites") and not openly proclaim or emphasize their relationship to Egypt. Historians have followed suit so it is only now, in relatively recent times, that the truth about the origins of the Judites and Levites has surfaced.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Some scholars, as early as Josephus, have associated the Semitic Hyksos with the ancient Hebrews, seeing their departure from Egypt as the story retold in the Exodus. Notably, Canaanite/Hebrew names occur among the HyksosWikipedia / <cite>Wikipedia (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
The Hyksos were none other than the biblical Levites.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
This connection to Heliopolis can be explained once we consider the theory of revisionist author Ralph Ellis who (following on from the nineteenth century scholar Donald MacKenzie) believes Heliopolis to have been dominated by the Hyksos kings. Authors William Bramley and Laurence Gardner define these kings as part of the ancient "Dragon Bloodline."Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Yuya's (Joseph's) power was enhanced and solidified after his daughter Tiye was betrothed and wedded to the young Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1382-1344 BC). This fortuitous marriage sealed the Israelite/Levite (Hyksos) line with the native Egyptian one. There is little doubt in our mind that if Amenhotep was not himself of Hyksos descent, his second wife Tiye most certainly was.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
It is generally reckoned that the Hyksos Pharaoh Apepi II (Apophis) was the last hereditary Dragon King in Egypt, but it would appear that the heritage was perpetuated through the female line into the new dynasty. Even the grave of Ahmose's son Amenhotep I contained a preserved vase cartouche of the daughter of Apophis, which signifies the enmity was not so great between the houses as is traditionally supposed.Laurence Gardner / <cite>Genesis of the Grail Kings (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
Although the majority of the Hyksos people were frowned upon and even despised by native Egyptians their upper class and priestly class were accepted and honored in pharaonic circles. Indeed, most of the pharaohs of the eighteenth dynasty may have possessed Hyksos blood. This is most important because recently discovered evidence reveals that the Hyksos settlers of Egypt were none other than the Israelites and Levites of Judeo-Christian history.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Before we explore what the term "Israelite" truly referred to let us just emphasize the great power that Yuya and his family enjoyed. Being made viceroy and vizier by the pharaoh gave him complete power over the entire country. It is likely that he and his wife were descendants of the Hyksos kings of previous dynasties, and of the Levites resident in Avaris at the time.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
"Solomon" who established the "Zadokite" order was none other than the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III, the father of Akhenaton. Amenhotep III was a descendant of the Hyksos pharaohs of Upper Egypt and was a worshipper of the sun god Aton. The name Solomon was merely his solar title - sol meaning sun. The Zadokites, originally sun priests of Egypt, were serpent worshippers.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Before they arrived in Rome, the Herodian dynasty were allegedly known as Edomites, and we strongly suspect they were connected to the descendants of the Atonists and to the Hyksos "Shepherd Kings," of Egypt. The word Edom is believed to have meant "red men," or "men from the red land," and the color red is associated with the Hyksos bloodline. The Herod family was both Jewish and Roman, and we believe them to have been puppets of the Atonists ensconced in France and Britain.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
The Herodians, known as "Kings of the Jews" were a Jewish-Roman elite of great power and prestige. They were Edomites (Idumeans) or Hyksos, that is - Atonists. A few experts believe that the letter "I," at the beginning of Idumean, should be a "J." They believe the word is a rough and deliberate corruption of Judean. This makes sense. This is merely one example of how words and terms have been tampered with so that the truth about mankind's past remains distorted.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
…Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were not a family of poor, captive, downtrodden shepherds at all.They were nothing less than the Hyksos, the “Shepherd Kings,” pharaohs of Egypt.Ralph Ellis / <cite>Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs (quoted by Michael Tsarion)</cite>
Official history tells us that the oppressive Hyksos were eventually expelled from the country by the Pharaoh Ahmose I (1575-1550 BC) who led the Egyptian people in rebellion against the tyrannical invader dynasty. However, we believe the upper classes of the Hyksos invaders were not expelled. We believe they maintained senior positions at the pharaoh's court and great temples of the sun at Gizeh, Tanis, Heliopolis, Amarna, Avaris, and Alexandria. The upper strata of the Hyksos people had clearly married in with the native Egyptian line, since even Tuthmosis IV and his son Amenhotep III were of mixed blood. Some Egyptologists believe that Amenhotep III was the father of both Smenkhare and Tutankhamun, and given that this is true, it would mean that these two Atonist pharaohs were also of mixed blood.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
All is made clear,regarding Abraham and Sarah's traversal into Egypt, when we realize what biblicists meant by the term "Egypt." As Ralph Ellis so brilliantly points out, the name Egypt was employed by the composers of the Old Testament to denote Thebes in Lower Egypt. This was the city and region controlled by the adversaries of the Hyksos. It was considered a separate region, with different rulers, gods, customs, and politics. So, it was not the country of Egypt that Abraham visited, but Thebes within Egypt.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
They [Moustafa Gadalla and Ahmed Osman] contend that Abraham, Jacob, Isaac, and Joseph were themselves members of a powerful dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs known as the Hyksos. Osman declares these Hyksos to be the same people as the Israelites. He argues that the Hyksos Kings of the Egyptian 13th dynasty, who ruled for approximately 300 years, are the ancestors of those referred to as Israelites and Levites. During the eighteenth dynasty, their leader was Pharaoh Akhenaton, who was himself either a physical or ideological descendant of the Hyksos. Author Ralph Ellis insists that Abraham did not come into Egypt from elsewhere. He claims that Abraham was always resident in Egypt and that he was a powerful Hyksos king and rival to the pharaoh of Upper Egypt resident at Thebes. The city of Ur was not in Mesopotamia at all. It was not near the Euphrates and Tigris, as most believe, but on the Nile.Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
Amenemhet I (1991-1962 BC) was titled "Amen is the Head." He was the first king of the twelfth dynasty, and his ancestry is unknown. Some scholars suspect he was the prototype for the Biblical patriarch known as Abraham. However, this would place Abraham in Egypt before the official dates for the invasion of the Hyksos. The problem is less complicated once we understand that the Hyksos were not invaders from outside Egypt. They were foreign to Upper Egypt but not to Egypt itself. The groups that invaded during the thirteenth dynasty may have been related to the noble families of Lower Egypt, that is, of the Hyksos Kings. They may have entered the land by invitation. Later, as the dynasties changed, these visitors appear to have been considered unwelcome guests or invaders.
Michael Tsarion / <cite>The Irish Origins of Civilization, Volume 2</cite>
New research claims the Hyksos people who briefly ruled a large portion of ancient Egypt were a group of immigrants who had lived in Egypt for centuries before rising to power
Analysis of chemicals in teeth spanning centuries revealed varying levels of isotopes of the element strontium which paints a picture of the people's history. A total of 75 teeth were studied after being excavated from Tell El-Dab'a, the ancient capital city of the Hyskos land
Mummies of two high-status Egyptians discovered in an ancient Nile temple
The mummies of two high-status ancient Egyptians discovered in a temple on the Nile delta may bring researchers a step closer to finding the remains of Cleopatra.
The mummies, which had lain undisturbed for 2,000 years, are in a poor state of preservation.
But they were originally covered with gold leaf – a luxury reserved for only the top members of society's elite – meaning they may have personally interacted with Cleopatra.
Also found at the site were 200 coins bearing Cleopatra's name and her face, which would have been pressed based on Cleopatra's direct instructions.
'Instead, this research supports the theory that the Hyksos rulers were not from a unified place of origin, but Western Asiatics whose ancestors moved into Egypt during the Middle Kingdom, lived there for centuries, and then rose to rule the north of Egypt.'
The findings show a large wave of immigration into the region by Hyskos people centuries before they seized control of power.
Then, when they were in control, the population swelled.
'This is consistent with the supposition that, while the ruling class had Near Eastern origins, the Hyksos' rise to power was not the result of an invasion, as popularly theorised, but an internal dominance and takeover of foreign elite,' the authors write.
Hyskos people were different to the Egyptians in several ways.
For example, they had names similar to inhabitants of the neighbouring region of southwest Asia and not the traditional Egyptian monikers.
According to ancient artwork from the time, they also wore long, multicoloured clothes in stark contrast to the white attire favoured by the natives.
Egyptologist Orly Goldwasser at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem told Science Magazine that the immigrants most likely had peaceful intentions.
It is entirely possible they brought technologies such as the horse and chariot with them and may have even invented the alphabet after arriving.
The rule of Hyksos in Egypt and who was Joseph's pharaoh
It appears that not the entire land of Egypt was overrun by Hyksos. The occupation was more confined to the Delta region, the Lower Nile valley, and to the district of Fayoum.
- Regions of Elephantine, Thebes, and Abydos were forced to certain acts of submission and tax payments, but retained a considerable degree of independence.
- The Theban monuments of the 11th and 12th dynasties were left undisturbed.
- Even some structures in lower Egypt were left untouched, either because they looked insignificant to the conqueror, or were too massive. The pyramids were too huge to destroy. But the contents of the tombs was likely tampered with during this period.
- Amenemhat's buildings in Fayoum may have been damaged, but not destroyed.
The Egyptian civilization went through a huge shock with the invasion, but it was not destroyed.
The Hyksos king who led the invasion was named either Salatis or Saites. Salatis is mentioned by historian Josephus. Saites is mentioned by Africanus, Eusebius, and George the Syncellus in their writings.
Well, whoever he was, this king set up his headquarters in Memphis. Then he fortified and garrisoned various other towns in important positions.
Very little in known about this king, because there are no monuments left of this king.
The reign of Hyksos is debated to be between 2 and 5 centuries long. It is likely that the shorter time frame is more probable, because the Egyptians returned to their previous lifestyle with almost no change after the end of the Hyksos reign. They retained the same manners and customs, same religious usages, same rules of art, and same names.
Even if the initial attack was very hostile and destructive, the subsequent years were much more peaceful. Egyptians did not cause too much trouble to the conquerors. The "Shepherds" ruled over quite and unresisting subjects. The taxes were paid with no delays.
Under these circumstances, their manners began to soften. As some other invaders who have gradually assimilated into a superior civilization they had conquered, so did Hyksos. They adopted the Egyptian dress, titles, official language, art, mode of writing, architecture. Temples and statues built under later Hyksos, had the same character as purely Egyptian ones
The Hyksos brought into Egypt the worship of their single ancestral deity named Sut. He was apparently identified with the sun, "the great ruler of heaven". He was later identified with Baal. When they invaded Egypt, they destroyed every temple indiscriminately. But later, they acknowledged in the Egyptian god Set, their own Sut. Hyksos king Apepi built a great temple to this god and made sphinxes. All was very similar to Egyptian temples and sphinxes. But the sphinxes differed in that they had manes like lions and wings. They have the name of Apepi engraved on them.
According to an ancient tradition, the king who was Joseph's master, and allowed him to administer the entire Egypt, was Apepi. George the Syncellus, in his writings, states that this has been accepted by everyone in ancient times.
It is clear that Joseph's arrival to Egypt was not under the Old Empire, since horses and chariots were in use, as well as wagons or carts. That was something the Hyksos brought to Egypt. It is also more likely that a "Shepherd" king would be more likely to entrust the rule of the entire Egypt to a fellow shepherd, than a native Egyptian would. A priest of Heliopolis would scarcely have given his daughter into marriage to Joseph, unless the state of priesthood was in a depression.
Add to that the fact that the pharaoh of Joseph seems to have been ruling from Lower Egypt, rather than from Thebes. And Thebes was were Egyptian kings ruled for hundreds of years before and after the Hyksos rule.
Apepi was dominant over all of Egypt, as Joseph's pharaoh seems to have been. He acknowledged a singe god, as did that monarch. He was a thoroughly Egyptianized king, as later Hyksos kings were. He had a council of educated scribes, a magnificent court, and a peaceful reign until towards its close.
The arguments may not be thoroughly exhaustive. But if they're true, we can assign the touching story of Joseph, to the reign of the last Hyksos.
And maybe that's why the Hebrews were persecuted by a king who "did not know Joseph".
400 Years a Slave400 Hundred Year Stele Line Drawing (Wikipedia)
400 years is in the news. The time period has been the topic of some tweets and interviews by Kanye West in relation to slavery in the United States. Putting aside the Emancipation Proclamation, the 400 year time period of Middle-Passage blacks in America calls to mind other 400 year periods in American history.
- In 1893, America celebrated the Columbus quadricentennial one year late in a famous exposition in Chicago
- In 2007, Jamestown celebrated its quadricentennial including a royal visit from England
- In 2009, New York, Vermont, and Canada celebrated the quadricentennial of Henry Hudson and Samuel Champlain including a royal visit from the Netherlands
- In 2011, Protestants especially in the United States and the United Kingdom celebrated the quadricentennial of the publication off the King James Version of the Bible.
400 year anniversaries are a big deal. They involve long memories and cultural continuity.
In biblical terms, the 400 year time period is well known and for its connection to slavery:
Then the LORD said to Abram, “Know of a surety that your descendants will be sojourners in a land that is not theirs, and will be slaves there, and they will be oppressed for four hundred years (Genesis 15:13).
But is not the only 400-year period known from ancient times. As it turns out there is another memory of a 400-year period and from Pharaoh Ramses II, the traditional pharaoh of the Exodus. Ramses II honored the legacy of the Hyksos in Egypt commemorating their sojourn in the land in year 400, month 4, season 3, day 4 on an artifact appropriately called the Four Hundred Year Stele. The idea that there is a connection between these two 400-year traditions from the 17 th to 13 th centuries BCE involving West Semites in the Delta in the time of Ramses is not new. The connection between the two cultural memories was the subject of my paper last November at the annual conference of the American Schools of Oriental Research (to be published as “The Hyksos and the Exodus: Two 400-Year Stories,” in Richard Beal and Joann Scurlock, ed., What Difference Does Time Make? [Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns]).
Let’s examine the significance of the number and then turn to the issue of connections. To begin with there is the number four. Assyriologist Piotr Michalowski observes:
Not to be content to be kings of Sumer and Akkad, these [Akkadian] rulers added still another forceful epithet, “king of the four corners of the universe,” or, in Sumerian, “kings of the heaven’s four corners,” in a sense driving home the notion of “everything.” 1
This sense of “everything” through the use of “four” continued across the millennia in Mesopotamian times from Akkadians to Assyrians.
Four certainly is known in the biblical tradition and in the same cosmic sense. There are the four rivers of the garden encompassing the world (Gen. 2:10). There are the four cities Nimrod rules encompassing the empires from in the beginning to the present of the author if one dismisses Egypt (Gen. 10:8-10). There are the four kingdoms of chaos who are defeated by the warrior-shepherd(/king) of Hebron in this version of the cosmos and chaos tradition (Gen. 14). And there are the four kingdoms in the Daniel tradition (Daniel 7:2-7) thereby raising the perennial question of who would be the fifth kingdom. These examples all attest to the cosmic dimension of the number 4 and its sense of completeness.
Raising the number four by a factor of ten continues the metaphorical not literal dimension of numbers. Forty also is number well-known from the biblical tradition in a variety of examples and settings. It rains for forty nights and forty days (Gen. 7:4, 12, and 17 8:6). Israel wanders in the wilderness for forty years (Ex. 16:35 Num. 14:33-34 32:13 Deut. 2:7 8:2, 4 29:5 Josh. 5:6 Neh. 9:21 Ps. 9510 Amos 5:25 Acts 13:18 Heb. 3:9, 17). Moses and Elijah were on the mountain for forty days and forty nights (Ex. 24:18 34:28 Deut. 9:9, 11, 18 10:10 I Kings 19:8). There are additional examples of the use of forty as well.
The extensive use of the number 40 across a wide range of times, people, and circumstances suggests some intrinsic value was associated with the number 40 beyond a literal meaning. My sense of the usage is that 4 x 10 also implies a totality, the completion or fulfillment of a measure of time, a way of marking periods or cycles, and is not to be taken literally. It signifies the right amount in time or for an action. God forbid Hazael should have brought 41 camel loads (II Kings 8:9) or Moses and Elijah should have remained on the mountain top for only 39 days and nights. Those actions would have disrupted the cosmic order. The audience expected 40.
The number 40 also is attested outside the biblical narrative. In the Mesha Stele, Mesha, the king of Moab, declares that Israel had ruled over the land of Moab for forty years.
Omri had taken possession of the land of Medeba, and dwelled there his days and much of his son’s days, forty years.
The more challenging question is to determine how it came to be that Mesha used the same number used so frequently in biblical accounts. In this regard, the task is similar to that between the two usages of 400 by Ramses and the story of oppression in Egypt ending with Ramses. The idea that there is no connection between the biblical 40 and 400 and the non-biblical usages by Mesha and Ramses would be considered farfetched in any discipline other than biblical studies.
Ramses didn’t only use 400 years in the appropriately named “Four Hundred Year Stele.” He also used 4 for the day and the month. He probably would have used four for the season too except Egypt only had three. Egyptologist James Hoffmeier characterizes this dating as “odd, raising the possibility of some sort of symbolism.” 2 The stele commemorates the action of his father Seti I infusing the Baal-Seth identity in the new Egyptian capital at Avaris at the birth of the new dynasty. In a sense, the action officially demarcated the cessation of the Amarna Era (chaos) and the primacy of the Baal-Seth deity at Avaris (order) over the Amun-Re deity at Thebes in the 18 th Dynasty. All these machinations automatically have political overtones. While the politics of the birth of the 19 th Dynasty are beyond the scope of this post, one should remain cognizant that those developments form the backdrop to the Four Hundred Year Stele.
Again my sense is this higher factor of 4 and 10 2 signifies a unit of completion or perfection. In this case, Ramses is referring to a period of time or cycle that presumably has now concluded. I propose that in the Four Hundred Stele, Ramses sought to merge the two traditions as his father had. The time of the onset of the new Egyptian dynasty was the time of the completion of a period in history. He integrated the Hyksos timeline into the Egyptian one. Instead of the Hyksos ruling during an “intermediate period” as in Egyptology today, the Hyksos were the beginning of a cycle which concluded with the post-Amarna restoration. What had been separate now became one. Baal began both periods in history. From this point forward, the two peoples were chronologically merged into a single timeline in Egyptian history. It was morning in Egypt. Here comes the sun on a new day in Egyptian history. Ramses had delivered a political message in his present through the metaphorical values of the numbers he chose to publicly proclaim in the organization of temporal epochs.
Egyptologist Hans Goedicke dates the Four Hundred Year stele to shortly after year 34 in the reign of Ramses. He asks:
Why should Ramses in the second half of his reign suddenly have an urge to foster the legitimacy of his rule and that of his family, after they had occupied the throne for more than fifty years? 3
I propose that the origins of the stele are to be found in the aftermath of the Battle of Kadesh during the reign of Ramses II.
This famous battle between Egypt and the Hittites in Year 5 of the reign of Ramses II is famous for important reasons:
- the size of the armed forces in a Bronze Age battle was huge and rare
- the numerous descriptions of the battle in image and text by Ramses II
- the existence of an alternate vision of the battle by the Hittites
- the ineptitude of the new Pharaoh in falling into a trap
- the rescue of Ramses by a Semitic military contingent
- the motifs used by Egypt which could be appropriated by others for their own purposes.
Just as Waterloo and D-Day live on in the cultural memory of western civilization so too Egypt’s two main battles in the Levant, Thutmose III at Megiddo and Ramses II at Kadesh lived on in the cultural memory of the Canaanites.
There were geopolitical consequences to the battle. Egyptologist Donald Redford claims that after the battle of Kadesh:
Headmen of Canaanite towns, vassals of Egypt, were impressed by what they divined as inherent weaknesses in Pharaoh’s forces: poor intelligence and a tendency to panic. Rebellion was possible Egypt could be beaten….In the wake of the retreating Egyptians, all Canaan flared into open revolt….It was Ramesses’s darkest hour. 4
Redford limits this awareness to Canaanites in the land of Canaan. Redford is correct about Canaanites revolting in the land of Canaan following Ramses’s poor performance as commander in chief. The destruction in Hazor is simply the most prominent example of the “Canaanite spring,” the unrest Ramses now had to face in land of Canaan.
Meanwhile, all was not quiet on the home front either. As Thomas Thompson astutely comments on the significance of the battle of Kadesh beyond the battle itself.
After this defeat, Ramses II’s army was racked with revolts. It had borne the brunt of the cost of his expensive misadventure….Civil unrest and religious opposition at home was doubly encouraged….A series of plots and intrigues by court factions bitter over the military failure at Kadesh effectively paralyzed royal authority and its control of import groups within the army. 5
One might take issue to the extent to which unrest and intrigue occurred, but the basic thrust of the observation appears valid. Kadesh exposed the shortcomings the leader of the country and people responded to that weakness. Thompson has honed in on the precise time when the potential for disruption of ma’at in the political arena had occurred.
I propose that that it was this very disruption which led to the two 400-year traditions in Egypt and Israel. Baruch Halpern suggests that if the Israelites scribes knew the 400 Year stele, that such knowledge is evidence of the portrayal of Israel as Hyksos and the identification of Ramses as the Pharaoh of the Exodus. He asserts the Israelites linked themselves to the memory of the Hyksos in Egypt probably during the time of Solomon when relationships between the two countries were good and monuments were being relocated from Goshen/Avaris to Tanis where the 400-year stele ultimately was found. 6 He does not appear to consider the possibility that the some Hyksos actually led the people who left Egypt in the time of Ramses II and that therefore these linkages were always part of the Israelite cultural heritage right from the start. After his failure at Kadesh and the departure of Hyksos Levites and others to liberate the land of Canaan from Egyptian hegemony, Ramses sought to shore up his support with the Hyksos who had remained in the land with the Four Hundred Year Stele. The Hyksos Levites who had left Egypt after the Battle of Kadesh and then became Israelite later incorporated that event into their own cultural memory. After all, they too had been in the land of Egypt for 400 years before they left. Once you realize that the Levites were Hyksos all the pieces fall into place.
- Piotr Michalowski, “Masters of the Four Corners of the Heavens: Views of the Universe in Early Mesopotamian Writings,” in Kurt A. Raaflaub and Richard J.A. Talbert., ed., Geography and Ethnography: Perceptions of the World in Pre-modern Societies (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), 147-168, here 153.
- James K. Hoffmeier, “What Is the Biblical Date for the Exodus? A Response to Bryant Wood,” JETS 50 2007:225-247, here 238n.74.
- Hans Goedicke, “Some Remarks on the 400-Year Stela,” CdE 41 1966:23-37, here 24.
- Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 185.
- Thomas L. Thompson, The Mythic Past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 153.
- Baruch Halpern, The Exodus from Egypt: Myth or Reality,” in Hershel Shanks, William G. Dever, Baruch Halpern, P. Kyle McCarter, The Rise of Ancient Israel: Symposium at the Smithsonian Institution, October 26, 1991 (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeological Society, 1992), 86-117, here 98-101 and Baruch Halpern, “Fracturing the Exodus, as Told by Edward Everett Horton,” in Thomas E. Levy, Thomas Schneider, and William H. C. Propp, ed. Israel’s Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience (New York: Springer, 2015), 293-304, here 299.
Who Were the Hyksos and Why Were They Important to the Bible?
The story of Joseph is one of the most popular and well-known tales in the Bible. It is the final story in the book of Genesis and leads straight into the tale of Moses and the Exodus. The story of family strife, slavery, redemption, revenge and forgiveness has been made into a movie and a beloved musical. It also has been the subject of intense historical debate as it has been tied closely to a period of turmoil and mystery in Egyptian history.
Around 1720 B.C. a group of foreigners invaded the Egyptian kingdoms and set up a kingdom of their own in the Nile delta. The ancient Egyptians called these people &ldquoheqa-khaset&rdquo or &ldquorulers [of] foreign lands,&rdquo an expression used to refer to almost any non-Egyptian peoples. The ancient Greeks, however, called these people &ldquoHyksos&rdquo meaning &ldquoking shepherds,&rdquo an expression that was based on the Egyptian phrase but used for a specific group of people from the area surrounding the Nile. Where the Hyksos came from is a matter of debate that is of enormous interest to biblical historians because the Hyksos could be the missing link that cracks the mystery of both the story of Joseph and the tale of the Exodus wide open.
Historians have wondered for decades how the Egyptians could forget a man like Joseph who, essentially, saved their entire civilization. How could the ancient Egyptians, who deified their dead pharaohs and held elaborate grieving rituals for the dead, forget a national hero so completely that they enslaved his descendants? Why did Joseph not appear in ancient Egyptian writings? The Hyksos invasion may answer those questions.
When the Hyksos invaded, they had the most advanced weaponry in the region. Their weapons of war included the composite bow, horse drawn chariot, improved battle axes and the battering ram. They were also capable of using far more advanced fortification techniques than were known in the area at the time. This would already have given them an advantage in their conquest, but to make matters worse, Egypt was in the middle of a period of intense turmoil and infighting. As such, the Hyksos were able to conquer a sizeable area of Egypt and set up a fortified capital in Avaris as well as a dynasty of their own. Eventually, the Hyksos lost control of the native Egyptian population. The Hyksos dynasty was destroyed, and the Hyksos and their allies who remained in Egypt were killed, enslaved or expelled from the Nile delta. Among those allies may have been the Israelites.
There are no records of a Hebrew named Joseph in ancient Egypt. The Egyptians, however, may not have been the people that Joseph saved. The Hyksos called their kings &ldquopharaohs&rdquo as well, and they are believed to have come from Canaan or at least traveled through the area. As such, the Hyksos may have been familiar with the culture Joseph grew up in and willing to hear out a stranger who claimed to be able to interpret the king&rsquos dreams. This would fit with what archeology has found in territories controlled by the Hyksos as there have been a number of artifacts uncovered in the area do not match Egyptian typology but do fit with what is found in Israel. When the Hyksos were defeated, the remaining Israelites were enslaved.
Since the Egyptians also had a habit of trying to erase people they did not like from history, such as the attempts to eliminate all mentions of Hatshepsut, the woman who was one of the most successful pharaohs in history, it is not out of the question for them to have decided to remove mentions of Joseph as well. This would also explain why the pharaoh in Exodus &ldquoknew not Joseph.&rdquo Joseph had been advising the Hyksos, not the Egyptians.
Other scholars claim the complete reverse. Joseph, they say, advised the Egyptians, but the Israelites were enslaved by the Hyksos. Ancient Egypt kept records of a man called Imhotep who, according to hieroglyphics found carved near Aswan, saved Egypt from a famine when the annual Nile floods failed seven years in a row. The story of Imhotep is very similar to that of Joseph in the Bible. If Imhotep was the same person as Joseph as some scholars suggest, then it may have been the Hyksos who enslaved the Israelites. As foreigners, they would not have known who Joseph was or of his importance.
One piece of evidence supporting this theory is, oddly enough, a grave robbery. A tomb from before the Hyksos invasion was found by archaeologists to have been robbed in ancient times. This in and of itself is not unusual. Grave robbing was, and still is, a good source of black market goods. What is strange is what was stolen. The grave robbers took the actual body from the tomb. While modern grave robbers might get a pretty penny for ancient bones, most grave robbers of old were interested in gold, silver and other burial treasures.
They would have had no interest in the actual body of the person who was buried in the tomb. Some suggest, based on evidence including hieroglyphs and the Asiatic appearance of a broken statue, that the grave robbers were none but faithful Israelites who removed Joseph&rsquos body to keep it safe from Hyksos who desecrated the tomb. This would then help explain why the Israelites could so easily gather up Joseph&rsquos bones to take with them during the Exodus. They had already stolen the body. This would also be in keeping with the theory that Joseph and Imhotep were the same person as Imhotep was said to be deified by the Egyptians after his death, and the ancient Egyptians were known to build elaborate tombs for important people who died.
The Hyksos are often seen as nothing more than an interesting historical footnote in Egyptology, but they are of far greater interest for biblical scholars and historians. The appearance of this foreign people in Egypt may account for one of the greatest mysteries in the tale of Joseph and the story of the Exodus. Joseph was not remembered by the Israelites&rsquo enslavers because the slavers never did know him. He may have saved a people, but it was not their people, and so they took his descendants as slaves until such time as God led his people out of Egypt and back to the land He had promised them so long ago.
The Hyksos kingdom was centered in the eastern Nile Delta and Middle Egypt and was limited in size, never extending south into Upper Egypt, which was under the control of Theban-based rulers, except briefly, for about three years, at the end of Khyan's reign and the beginning of Aphophis'. The Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty rulers established their capital and seat of government at Avaris.The Hyksos had Canaanite names, as seen in those with names of Semitic deities such as Anath or Ba'al. Several of their pharaohs did in fact adopt the Egyptian title hekw chasut (foreign overlords) for themselves, along with Egyptian throne names. They introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot.
The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet) were an ethnically mixed group of Western Asiatic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. They overthrew the weak Egyptian Thirteenth Dynasty, whose capital was near Memphis, and formed the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties of Egypt, (ca. 1674-1548 B.C.E. See Egyptian chronology), ruling Lower and Middle Egypt for over one hundred years.
Traditionally, only the six Fifteenth Dynasty rulers are called "Hyksos". The Tanach refers to them as Canaanites, and decendents of Ham, son of Noah. The Hyksos had names that bear strong similarities to Canaanite names, and archaeologists think of the Canaanites as being indistinguishable from the Phoenicians. The Hyksos introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite bow, the horse, and the horse-drawn chariot.
The numerous Sixteenth Dynasty princes are believed to be a mixed collection of "Hyksos", other Asiatic Semites, and local native Egyptian princes who had no choice but to support their new overlords. The names of the Fifteenth Dynasty Hyksos are known from Egyptian monuments, scarabs and other small objects, and Manetho's history of Egypt, written during the time of Ptolemy II.
Who Were the Hyksos?
The term "Hyksos" derives from the expression heka khasewet (Rulers of Foreign Lands), used in Egyptian texts like the Turin King List to describe the rulers of neighboring lands. This expression begins to appear as early as the late Old Kingdom in Egypt referring to various Nubian chieftains and as early as the Middle Kingdom referring to the bedouin chieftains of Syria-Palestine. It is generally accepted that only the six kings of the Fifteenth Dynasty are to properly be called "Hyksos", because not only do they bear Egyptian royal titles, but they are specifically called Hyksos by Manetho. It is generally agreed that these six Hyksos kings of Egypt ruled a total of about 108 years.
Wolfgang Helck argued that the Hyksos were part of massive and widespread Hurrian and Indo-Aryan migrations into the Near East. According to Helck, the Hyksos were Hurrians and part of a Hurrian empire that, he claimed, extended over much of Western Asia at this period. However, today the Hurrian hypothesis finds few if any supporters, and the Hyksos are widely regarded as Semitic.
The names, the order, and even the total number of the Fifteenth Dynasty rulers are not known with any certainty. The names appear in hieroglyphs on monuments and small objects such as jar lids and scarabs. In those instances in which Prenomen (The fourth name of an Egyptian pharaoh it was preceded by the royal title n-sw-bit, or King of Upper and Lower Egypt. See Egyptian royal names) and Nomen (The fifth name of an Egyptian pharaoh it was preceded by the royal title sa Ra, or Son of (the sun-god) Ra.) do not occur together on the same object, there is no certainty that the names belong together as the two names of a single person. This period of Egyptian history is a chronological nightmare that only additional datable archaeological material can resolve.
Manetho's history of Egypt is known only through the works of others, such as Flavius Josephus. These sources do not list the names of the six rulers in the same order. To complicate matters further, the spellings are so distorted that they are useless for chronological purposes there is no close or obvious connection between the bulk of these names &mdash Salitis, Beon/Bnon, Apachnan/Pachnan, annas/Staan, Apophis, Assis/Archles &mdash and the Egyptian names that appear on scarabs and other objects. The hieroglyphic names of the Fifteenth Dynasty Hyksos rulers as they are known from monuments, scarabs, and other objects are:
1. Sa-kha-en-ra Shalik (Each name is only found separately.) 2. Ma-ib-ra Sheshy (?) (Each name is only found separately.) 3. Mer-woser-ra Yaqob-her (Both names are found together on one scarab.) 4. Se-woser-en-ra Khayan (Both names are found together.) 5. Apopi (Three different Prenomens: Aawoserra, Aaqenenra, and Nebkhepeshra) 6. Aa-sech-ra Khamudy (Each name is only found separately.)
Although the Semitic name "Jacob" appears in the form Yaqob-her as possibly that of the third Hyksos ruler, it is probably best to exercise more caution than Gardiner did when, in Egypt of the Pharaohs, he wrote that "it is difficult to reject the accepted view that the patriarch Jacob is commemorated" in this name. Popular names are known to recur again and again over long periods of time.
In the case of ruler 5 on the list above, the Prenomen and Nomen are normally found written together. It is not clear whether they represent a single king who changed his Prenomen or three separate rulers. In the Cambridge Ancient History (CAH), "Aweserra" Apophis is said to have been succeeded by a second "Apophis", who bore the Prenomen Aa-qenen-re. Ruler 1 on the list above is not recognized by CAH (Hayes suggests he may have been identical to Ruler 2 on the list), and Apophis II is added near the end instead. This maintains the total of six Fifteenth Dynasty Hyksos rulers. CAH follows Josephus’ Greek text of Manetho in using the older distorted form "Apophis". Gardiner, on the other hand, writes that there were in fact three kings with the Nomen Apopi. The matter is still being discussed, and any final answer as to whether there were three, two, or only one Apopi, who modified his Prenomen at various times during his reign (a good Egyptian practice which is attested frequently) remains for future discoveries to resolve.
Was There a Hyksos Invasion?
Manetho's account of the appearance of the Hyksos in Egypt calls it an armed invasion by a horde of foreign barbarians who met little resistance and who subdued the country by military force. It has been claimed that new revolutionary methods of warfare insured the Hyksos the ascendancy in their invasion. Herbert Winlock in his book The Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes describes new military hardware, such as the composite bow and most importantly the horse-drawn war chariot, as well as improved arrowheads, various kinds of swords and daggers, a new type of shield, mailed shirts, and the metal helmet. To say that even some of this military hardware had been brought into Egypt by the Hyksos and was not the result of a native Egyptian development does not necessarily point to a violent armed invasion by Asiatic hordes. Simply put, they had superior military hardware, so when military moves were called for, the Hyksos had the preponderance of military might on their side.
Helck supported the idea of an invasion, because it was part of his Hurrian hypothesis. However, the generally accepted view today is reflected as a peaceful infiltration of several different groups of Western Asiatic peoples, mainly Semites, into the eastern Nile Delta during the closing decades of the Middle Kingdom -- in some cases as slaves of the victorious Egyptians. Von Beckerath adds that to suppose any armed invasion of Egypt by Semites from southern Palestine and the Sinai desert is out of the question because the tribes there simply were not strong enough. Furthermore there was no consolidated state in the region from which such a supposed invasion could have been launched. The Hyksos' realm was not the southern extension of a great Hurrian empire, as Helck thought, for the simple reason that there was never any Hurrian empire. Over the years, then, the numbers of these Asiatics in the eastern Delta increased, and gradually they extended their political control over the local Egyptian towns and princedoms there. Finally a point was reached when one group of leaders came to the same conclusion as Pepin the Short did in the Merovingian kingdom so many centuries later when he posed the question whether it was right that one of royal race and who bore the title king but who exercised no effective power in the kingdom should continue to bear the title of king. These Hyksos leaders thereupon took matters into their own hands, attacked and overran the administrative capital at Memphis, and proceeded to make themselves pharaohs.
Nor was there any great Hyksos empire extending over hither Asia, as was once thought. The chief evidence for such a Hyksos empire in Asia consists of a mass of Hyksos scarabs from southwest Palestine, an alabaster jar-lid from Knossos on Crete, and a small granite lion from Baghdad. Scarabs with Hyksos names have even been found as far south as Kerma in the Sudan. All these items have been satisfactorily explained as items of trade, not as indicators of direct political and military control.
Extent and Nature of Hyksos Rule
The Hyksos kingdom, then, was centered in the eastern Nile Delta and Middle Egypt and remained limited in size, never extending south into Upper Egypt, which was under the evidently firm control of the Theban dynasts. Hyksos relations with the south seem to have been mainly of a commercial nature, although the Theban princes do seem to have recognized the Hyksos rulers and may possibly have submitted for a time to the payment of tribute. The Hyksos Fifteenth Dynasty rulers established their capital and seat of government at Memphis and their summer Residence at Avaris.
Many writers have taken the increasing use of scarabs by the Fifteenth Dynasty Hyksos kings and their wide distribution as an indication of their expanding literacy as they became progressively Egyptianized. Even von Beckerath commented on their writing their names in hieroglyphs, their assuming Egyptian titles associated with traditional Egyptian kingship, and their adopting the Egyptian god Seth to represent their own titulary deity as examples of the Egyptianization of the Hyksos dynasts. Indeed, so far from being the bearers of a distinctive Hyksos "culture", they seem to have borrowed freely and extensively from the Egyptian, as Hayes notes. In fact, it would appear as though Hyksos administration was accepted in most quarters, if not actually supported by many of their Egyptian subjects. The flip side is that in spite of the prosperity that the stable political situation brought to the land, the native Egyptians continued to view the Hyksos as hated "Asiatics". When they eventually were driven out of Egypt all traces of their occupation were erased. History is written by the victors, and in this case the victors were the rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a native dynasty, the direct successor of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. It was the latter which started and led a sustained war against the Hyksos. These native kings from Thebes had the incentive to demonize the Asiatic rulers in the North, thus accounting for the ruthless destruction of their monuments. This note of warning tells us that the historical situation most probably lay somewhere between these two extreme positions: The Hyksos dynasties represented superficially Egyptianized foreigners who were tolerated, but not truly accepted, by their Egyptian subjects.
The independent native rulers in Thebes do seem, however, to have reached a practical modus vivendi with the later Hyksos rulers. This included transit rights through Hyksos-controlled Middle and Lower Egypt and pasturage rights in the fertile Delta. One text, Carnarvon Tablet I, relates the misgivings of the Theban ruler’s council of advisors when Kamose proposed moving against the Hyksos, whom he claimed were a humiliating stain upon the holy land of Egypt.
The councillors clearly did not wish to disturb the status quo: "[…] we are at ease in our (part of) Egypt. Elephantine (at the First Cataract) is strong, and the middle (of the land) is with us as far as Cusae [near modern Asyut]. The sleekest of their fields are plowed for us, and our cattle are pastured in the Delta. Emmer is sent for our pigs. Our cattle have not been taken away. He holds the land of the Asiatics we hold Egypt. " (This and other texts in English translation may be found in Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET), pp. 232f.)
The Thebean Offensive
Under Sekenenra Tao (II)
The war against the Hyksos began in the closing years of the Seventeenth Dynasty at Thebes. Later New Kingdom literary tradition has brought one of these Theban kings, Seqenenra Tao (II), into contact with his Hyksos contemporary in the north, Aauserra Apopi. Sekenenra is the father of the ruler above whose advisors counselled against disturbing the accommodation that had been reached with the Asiatics. The tradition took the form of a tale in which the Hyksos king Apopi sent a messenger to Sekenenra in Thebes to demand that the Theban hippopotamus pool be done away with, for the noise of these beasts was such that he was unable to sleep in far-away Avaris. Perhaps the only historical information that can be gleaned from the tale is that Egypt was a divided land, the area of direct Hyksos control being in the north, but the whole of Egypt possibly paying tribute to the Hyksos kings.
Seqenenra Tao II participated in active diplomatic posturing, which probably consisted of more than simply exchanging of insults with the Asiatic ruler in the North. He seems to have led military skirmishes against the Hyksos, and judging from the vicious head wound on his mummy in the Cairo Museum, he may have died during one of them. His son and successor, Wadjkheperra Kamose, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty at Thebes, is credited with the opening campaigns of the Theban war against the Hyksos.
There is no evidence to support Montet's assertion in his book Eternal Egypt (1964) that Kamose's war of liberation was sponsored by the priesthood of Amun as an attack against the Seth-worshipers in the north (i.e. a religious motive). The Carnarvon Tablet I, does state that Kamose went north to attack the Asiatics by the command of Amun, the titulary deity of his dynasty, but this is simple hyperbole common to virtually all Egyptian royal inscriptions at all periods and should not be understood as the god’s having specifically commanded the attack for specifically religious reasons. Kamose's reason for launching his attack on the Hyksos was nationalistic pride, for in this same text he complains that he is sandwiched at Thebes between the Asiatics in the north and the Nubians (Sudanese) in the south, each holding “his slice of Egypt, dividing up the land with me…My wish is to save Egypt and to smite the Asiatics!” So it was that in his 3rd year on the throne Kamose, he embarked and sailed north from Thebes at the head of his army.
He surprised and overran the southernmost garrison of the Hyksos at Nefrusy, just north of Cusae [near modern Asyut], and Kamose then led his army as far north as the neighborhood of Avaris itself. Though the city was not taken, the fields around it were devastated by the Thebans. A stele discovered at Thebes continues the account of the war broken off on the Carnarvon Tablet I, telling of the interception and capturing of a courier bearing a message from the Hyksos king Aa-woser-ra Apopi at Avaris to his ally the ruler of Kush (modern Sudan), requesting his urgent support. Kamose promptly ordered a detachment of his troops to occupy the Bahriya Oasis in the Western Desert, controlling and blocking the desert route to the south. Kamose, called "the Strong",then sailed back up the Nile to Thebes for a joyous victory celebration after what was probably not much more than a surprise spoiling raid in force which caught the Hyksos off guard. This Year 3 is the only one attested for Kamose.
By the end of the reign of Aawoserra Apopi, one of the last Hyksos kings of the Fifteenth Dynasty, Hyksos forces had been routed from Middle Egypt and had been pulled back northward and regrouped in the vicinity of the entrance of the Fayyum at Atfih. This great Hyksos king had outlived his first Egyptian contemporary, Sekenenra Tao II, and was still on the throne (albeit of a much reduced kingdom) at the end of Kamose's reign. The last Hyksos ruler(s) of the Fifteenth Dynasty undoubtedly had (a) relatively short reign(s) falling sometime within the first half of that of Ahmose, Kamose's successor and the founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Apparently Ahmose, the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, may have been on the Theban throne for some time before he resumed the war against the Hyksos.
The details of his military campaigns are taken from the account on the walls of the tomb of another Ahmose, a soldier from El-Kab, a town in southern Upper Egypt, whose father had served under Seqenenra Tao II, and whose family had long been nomarchs (governors) of the El-Kab district. It seems that several campaigns against the stronghold at Avaris were needed before the Hyksos were finally dislodged and driven from Lower Egypt. When this occurred is not known with certainty. Some authorities place the expulsion as early as Ahmose's fourth year, while Donald Redford, whose chronological structure has been adopted here, places it as late as the king's fifteenth year. The soldier Ahmose specifically states that he followed on foot as King Ahmose rode to war in his chariot. This is the first mention of the use of the horse and chariot by the Egyptians. In the repeated fighting around Avaris, the soldier captured prisoners and carried off several hands, which when reported to the royal herald resulted in his being awarded the "Gold of Valor" on three separate occasions. The actual fall of Avaris is only briefly mentioned: "Then Avaris was despoiled. Then I carried off spoil from there: one man, three women, a total of four persons. Then his majesty gave them to me to be slaves" (ANET, pp.233f).
After the fall of Avaris, the fleeing Hyksos were pursued by the Egyptian army across northern Sinai and into southern Palestine. Here, in the Negeb desert between Rafa and Gaza, the fortified town of Sharuhen was reduced after, according to the soldier from El-Kab, a long three-year siege operation. How soon after the sack of Avaris this Asiatic campaign took place is uncertain. One can reasonably conclude that the thrust into southern Palestine probably followed the Hyksos’ eviction from Avaris fairly closely, but, given a period of protracted struggle before Avaris fell and possibly more than one season of campaigning before the Hyksos were shut up in Sharuhen, the chronological sequence must remain uncertain.
The Hyksos were Semitic-speaking Asiatics who filtered into the eastern Egyptian Delta around the middle of the Thirteenth Dynasty during a period of internal Egyptian weakness. The Thirteenth Dynasty rulers had moved the capital of the country north to a centrally located town called It-tawy near Memphis, near the apex of the Delta. Seizing the kingship, the Hyksos ruled Egypt for over one hundred years, composing the Fifteenth Dynasty. The heterogeneous Sixteenth Dynasty was partly Hyksos, but also composed of local Egyptian rulers who had no choice but to go along with their new overlords. This general period of Egyptian weakness and foreign occupation is called the Second Intermediate Period, or more popularly, the Hyksos Period. The local princes in Thebes in the south formed the Seventeenth Dynasty when the Hyksos overran It-tawy and forced the ephemeral rulers there into subservience. These vigorous Theban rulers kept the flame of Egyptian independence alive and finally were able to lead a war of liberation that expelled the Asiatics. The Hyksos rulers and their military forces were driven from Egypt. Egypt was free, and Ahmose and his successors of the Eighteenth Dynasty could turn to the task of reconstruction. Some historians have linked the biblical story of Joseph with the Hyksos regime. As they too were Semitic, it is plausible that a Hyksos ruler could employ a Semitic minister at a high level.
Third, Let’s Know How Ahmose Beat the Hyksos Invasion
King Ahmose was able to comprehend the tactics of his opponent and adapt to their ways and defeat them in battle thus ending 108 years of Hyksos rule over Egypt. He made a great passage between Avaris and Canaan resulted in the cutting of all traffic and isolating the Hyksos from all help or supplies coming from in or out of Canaan.
Ahmose led three attacks against the city of Avaris the Hyksos capital but was able to conquer it in his fourth attempt and was also able to take the stronghold of the Hyksos Sharuhen near Gaza after a 3-6 year siege after taking their capital Avaris. He was strong enough to restore Theban rule over all of Egypt and reasserted Egyptian authority with the former territories of Nubia and Canaan.
He founded the 18th dynasty and rolled the wheel of ancient Egypt’s Golden era as Egyptian
power was able to reach its highest summit.
These are the key dates/events in the history of ancient Egypt timeline.
3500 B.C.- People began to settle in the Nile valley in about 7000 B.C. They farmed the land, kept animals, and built permanent homes on the banks of the Nile.
3100 B.C – Hieroglyphic script developed. Hieroglyphics was one of the first complete scripts to be used in ancient Egypt. The ancient used it for over 3500 Egyptian Years to record important information.
2900 BC: king Djer is buried at Abydos, the seat of the cult of Osiris, lord of the Underworld and husband of Isis, and his “mastaba” becomes considered the grave of Osiris
2890 BC: Hetepsekhemwy founds the second dynasty in Egypt
2356 BC: Unas becomes pharaoh
2350 BC: religious texts are inscribed in the burial chamber of Pharaoh Unas/Wenis
2323 BC: Unas is murdered and Teti founds the 6th dynasty
2289 BC: Teti dies and his son Pepi I succeeds him
2255 BC: Pepi I dies and is buried in a pyramid, “Man-nefer-mare”, which gives Hiku-Ptah its new name Men-nefer, or Memphis
1640 BC: An Asian population, the Hyksos, Semitic people from Palestine, seizes power in northern Egypt (the Delta), with capital in Avaris, and introduces the horse-driven chariot (15th and 16th dynasties)
1640 BC: the Egyptians still rule on south Egypt, maintaining their capital at Thebes, and Inyotef V founds the 17th dynasty
1550 BC: Ahmose I becomes pharaoh (“new kingdom”, 18th dynasty)
1520 BC: Amenhotep I orders the separation of mortuary temples and royal tombs at the necropolis outside Thebes
1504 BC: Amenhotep I dies and is succeeded by his brother-in-law Tuthmosis I, who campaigns all the way to Mesopotamia, makes Thebes the most imposing city of the kingdom and erects the Obelisk at the Karnak temple
18th dynasty- Egypt’s stability was briefly ruptured when the late 18th Dynasty king Amenhotep IV, also known as Akhenaten, changed the Egyptian religion and had most temples closed, favoring one new god, the solar-deity Aton. During this period of turmoil and upheaval, the so-called Amarna-revolution, Egypt lost a lot of its former influence in Asia and Nubia
19th dynasty (1307-1196) – The 19th Dynasty ended in dynastic upheaval. Although Seti was the legitimate successor of his father, Merenptah, another descendant of Ramesses II, Amenmes, appears to have successfully claimed the throne for himself, at least for a few Egyptian Years in the south of the country.
It is not known whether this happened at the beginning or somewhere during the reign of Seti II, but was is certain is that Seti outlived his rival and carefully set about to erase his titulary and usurp his monuments.