U.S. Constitution: Preamble and Amendments

U.S. Constitution: Preamble and Amendments

The U.S. Constitution, signed on September 17, 1787, created America’s federal government, established fundamental laws and legal structures while guaranteeing certain basic rights for American citizens.

What It Means

The preamble expresses the purpose of the U.S. Constitution. The federal government gains its power from the people rather than from the states. The government exists to maintain peace at home, provide national defense, promote the well-being of the people, and protect their liberties. Importantly, the Supreme Court has held, in Jacobson v. Massachusetts (1905), that the preamble itself is not a source of federal power or individual rights. Rather, all rights and powers are set out in the articles and amendments that follow.

Earlier today, we heard the beginning of the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States, ‘We, the people.’ It’s a very eloquent beginning. But when that document was completed, on the seventeenth of September in 1787, I was not included in that ‘We, the people.’ I felt somehow for many years that George Washington and Alexander Hamilton just left me out by mistake. But through the process of amendment, interpretation, and court decision, I have finally been included in ‘We, the people.’

First Draft of the Preamble to the Constitution

At the Constitutional Convention on August 6, 1787, the Committee of Detail submitted this first draft of the preamble, which began with a list of the states, as did the Articles of Confederation.

We, the people of the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, do ordain, declare, and establish, the following Constitution for the Government of Ourselves and our Posterity.

However, ratification of the Constitution did not require the unanimous consent of all thirteen states, and future states were expected to join the Union, so the convention dropped the names of the first states. This revision strengthened the idea that “the people” rather than “the states” created the government. Gouverneur Morris, a delegate from Pennsylvania, rewrote the preamble, crafting the more eloquent explanation that the convention finally adopted.


We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, [a] promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. [4]

"We the People" means all of the citizens of the United States. [b] [6]

The first few words of the Preamble – "We the People of the United States" – were very different than any treaty or law the United States had ever written before. For example, the United States' first constitution, the Articles of Confederation, describes itself as "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States," and then gives a list of all thirteen states. [7] The treaties the United States had signed were the same. They were agreements between states, not people. [1]

At the time, Gouverneur Morris chose to write "We the People" instead of saying "We the United States of. " and then listing all thirteen states. First of all, Article Seven of the Constitution said that only nine states had to approve the Constitution for it to take effect. At the time, nobody knew which states would ratify the Constitution and which would not. Because of this, the Preamble could not list all thirteen states as if they had all already agreed. Also, if other states joined the United States later, it would be impossible to add their names to the list. For these reasons, the Preamble had to start with "We the People." [1]

The words "We the People" turned into a strong statement that this new government was made by the people of the United States, to benefit the people of the United States. When Virginia's delegates were debating the Constitution, Governor Edmund Randolph pointed out: "The government is for the people and the [problem] was, that the people had no [power] in the government before." If the people are going to have to follow the government, he said, should not the people be the ones to create that government? [1]

"In order to form a more perfect union" is a concept most likely based on Commentaries on the Laws of England by Sir William Blackstone. [1] It was widely read at the time and many of the framers were students of his work. Blackstone stated the constitution of England was perfect, but steadily improving. [1] The phrase "a more perfect union" simply meant a better one than any before the Constitution. [1]

Before the government based on the Constitution, the United States was based on the Articles of Confederation. However, had very little power as a federal government. They did not give the United States government enough power for the country to work and grow. Every state was for itself, instead of working cooperatively. Sometimes they acted like thirteen separate countries that would only come together if another country attacked them. [8] [9]

"Establish justice" meant to establish the rule of law. It meant that everyone was equal before the law with no distinction between the status or wealth of a person. [10] With their new government, the Founding Fathers wanted to establish (create) justice and fairness. When the British Empire governed the American colonies, the colonists did not think the government was fair. For example, Parliament would decide that the colonists had to pay taxes on items like stamps and things that were made in other countries. The colonists did not have any say in this.

Even after the United States became independent, many of the Founding Fathers thought that the states had too much power under the Articles of Confederation. They thought the states had taken away people's rights. [11]

For example, during the Shays' Rebellion in Springfield, Massachusetts, the state of Massachusetts:

  • Took away the right to habeas corpus (so they could keep people in jail without a trial) [11] p. 84
  • Took away people's right to say bad things about the government [11] p. 84
  • Took over an armory (a building where weapons are kept), even though it was the property of the United States government, and they did not have permission to take it over [12][13]

Shays' Rebellion was still fresh in the minds of the framers. [6] It cause many to fear the spirit of the American Revolutionary War might be getting out of hand. There was a need to keep peace in the new country. [6]

Just five years after the Articles of Confederation were ratified in 1781, many Americans were unhappy with the Articles. Many of the Founding Fathers thought that the Articles had made the United States government too weak. [14] Shays' Rebellion made it very clear that the national government under the Articles of Confederation was not strong enough. Daniel Shays, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, led the rebel farmers trying to overthrow the Massachusetts government. The farmers had formed an entire army, which neither the state or federal governments had enough soldiers or money to fight. In desperation Massachusetts offered to pay for a private army to fight the rebellion. Finally, in 1787, that private army defeated the rebels. [11] pp. 84–86

John Jay, one of the Founding Fathers, said that after the United States government could not pay for soldiers to defend against any armed rebellion: "the inefficiency of the Federal government [became] more and more [obvious]." [15] Another Founding Father, Henry Knox, said that Shays' Rebellion convinced many people that the United States needed a stronger federal government. [11] p. 127 The Rebellion made it clear that the states were not protected, and if they were attacked, they would be on their own.

"Provide for the common defense" meant the framers were well aware that independence from Great Britain did not mean they were secure. [10] British Canada to the north was still full of angry loyalists. To the west were unknown numbers of hostile Native American tribes. Farther west was the vast Louisiana territory held by France. To the south the Spanish held Florida. Worse, these powers were fighting a series of wars in Europe that affected much of North America. The framers knew America needed to protect itself. [10] Providing for the common defence meant the new government would make sure all of the states were protected and defended if attacked.

"Promote the general welfare" is the basic goal of all governments. It was the main reason for having a constitution. [16]

In general, this part of the Preamble means that one of the new government's jobs would be to make things better for the whole country. Specifically, this part of the Preamble has to do with the government's powers to tax people and spend money. It means that the new government will only have the power to tax and spend on things that are good for the entire country. The government will not be allowed to spend money on things that will be good for only a part of the country, or only some people in the country. [4]

For example, Article One, Section 8 of the Constitution gives Congress the power to tax people and spend money on creating Post Offices and building roads for mail carriers to use. [4] Congress can do this because Post Offices will "promote the general Welfare"—everybody in the country will benefit from being able to send and get mail.

"Secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity" was important since many had come to America from places with little political or religious freedom. [10] This phrase demonstrates the intent of the new government to protect the newly-won freedoms and protect against a tyrannical government. [6]

However, the Articles of Confederation were all about the states' rights. At that time, many people were afraid of having a federal government that was too strong. These people were called anti-federalists. They included some of the Founding Fathers, like Patrick Henry and James Monroe. [17] The anti-federalists worried that a strong federal government could become tyrannical and take away the rights of individual states, like they thought the British colonial government had done. They also worried that a government ruled by a President might turn into a monarchy, where the President would become a King and have total power. [18] Because of these worries, the Articles of Confederation talked all about states' rights, and not about individual people's rights. [7] The framers wanted to establish these rights for the people of the United States and their "posterity" meaning all the generations of Americans who would follow.

"Do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America" is perhaps the strongest statement in the Preamble. It says in effect that the people made the Constitution and it is the people who give it power. [6] The Preamble to the United States Constitution, is the beginning of the Constitution. It is not a law. Instead, it talks about the Founding Fathers' reasons for writing the Constitution, and what they hope the Constitution will do.

Understand the Preamble, Understand the Constitution

Each phrase in the Preamble helps explain the purpose of the Constitution as envisioned by the Framers.

‘We the People’

This well-known key phrase means that the Constitution incorporates the visions of all Americans and that the rights and freedoms bestowed by the document belong to all citizens of the United States of America.

‘In order to form a more perfect union’

The phrase recognizes that the old government based on the Articles of Confederation was extremely inflexible and limited in scope, making it hard for the government to respond to the changing needs of the people over time.

‘Establish justice’

The lack of a system of justice ensuring fair and equal treatment of the people had been the primary reason for the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution against England. The Framers wanted to ensure a fair and equal system of justice for all Americans.

‘Insure domestic tranquility’

The Constitutional Convention was held shortly after Shays’ Rebellion, a bloody uprising of farmers in Massachusetts against the state caused by the monetary debt crisis at the end of the Revolutionary War. In this phrase, the Framers were responding to fears that the new government would be unable to keep peace within the nation’s borders.

‘Provide for the common defense’

The Framers were acutely aware that the new nation remained extremely vulnerable to attacks by foreign nations and that no individual state had the power to repel such attacks. Thus, the need for a unified, coordinated effort to defend the nation would always be a vital function of the U.S. federal government.

‘Promote the general welfare’

The Framers also recognized that the general well-being of the American citizens would be another key responsibility of the federal government.

‘Secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity’

The phrase confirms the Framer’s vision that the very purpose of the Constitution is to protect the nation’s blood-earned rights for liberty, justice, and freedom from a tyrannical government.

‘Ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America’

Simply stated, the Constitution and the government it embodies are created by the people, and that it is the people who give America its power.

The U.S. Constitution: Preamble

The preamble sets the stage for the Constitution (Archives.gov). It clearly communicates the intentions of the framers and the purpose of the document. The preamble is an introduction to the highest law of the land it is not the law. It does not define government powers or individual rights.

Establish Justice is the first of five objectives outlined in the 52-word paragraph that the Framers drafted in six weeks during the hot Philadelphia summer of 1787. They found a way to agree on the following basic principles:

"We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."

In this video, designed to guide group recitations of the preamble to the U.S. Constitution, the words are supported by visuals and background music that give it emotional impact as it sets out the aspirations that “We the People” have for our government and for our way of life as a nation.

Activity 1. Revolutionary Needs

When the American Revolution succeeded, what did the colonists need to do? As stated on America's Story, a link from the EDSITEment resource American Memory, "When the Colonies declared their independence from Britain, they had a flag and an army. What they lacked was a government."

What are the responsibilities of independence?

Pose a hypothetical situation to the class. Imagine that, on a field trip to Tahiti, the students became stranded—without any adults and with little hope of being rescued in the foreseeable future—on a very hospitable tropical island. Start with a brief, general discussion about such matters as: How will you work together? How will you create rules? How will you deal with people who group members think are not following the rules?

Then, either brainstorming as a class or working in small groups (if desired, groups can be assigned the questions below), make lists of the things the group would have to consider in developing its own government. Help the students by asking these guiding questions, which relate to phrases from the Preamble (indicated here for the teacher and to be discussed with the students in Lesson 4):

  1. How will you make sure that anyone who feels unfairly treated will have a place to air complaints? (establishing justice)
  2. How will you make sure that people can have peace and quiet? (ensuring domestic tranquility)
  3. How will you make sure that group members will help if outsiders arrive who threaten your group? (providing for the common defense)
  4. How will you make sure that the improvements you make on the island (such as shelters, fireplaces and the like) will be used fairly? (promoting the general welfare)
  5. How will you make sure that group members will be free to do what they want as long as it doesn't hurt anyone else? (securing the blessing of liberty to ourselves)
  6. How will you make sure that the rules and organizations you develop protect future generations? (securing the blessing of liberty to our posterity)

If the students worked in groups, allow time for sharing.

Now share with the class the political cartoon The Horse America, Throwing His Master and its title, available through a link from the EDSITEment resource American Memory.

  • What do the students observe in the cartoon? What is the cartoonist saying? What was happening in 1779?

Encourage class discussion. Having just released themselves from Britain's monarchy, what would the colonists fear? Judging from some of the complaints the colonists had against Britain, what might some of their concerns be for any future government? As in the hypothetical situation on the desert island, what decisions would the colonists have to make about forming a new government out of 13 colonies, which, until 1776, had basically been running themselves independently?

Preamble of the Freedom Amendments

While the Freedom Amendments are self-explanatory as written, I have written a few reasoning comments and benefits of each amendment. These Freedom Amendments to the United States Constitution are put forth by the will of the Citizens of the United States. These Amendments shall give back control and power of all goverment entities to the Citizens of which they serve.

Amendment XXVIII (28) Adding Amendments.

Section 1 – It shall be that upon a simple majority vote of the Citizens of twenty- six states combined with a simple majority vote by the Citizens of the United States to approve Constitutional Amendments or by Article V of the Constitution. Both houses of Congress and the President and Supreme Court shall be bound to enact and abide by all existing or new Amendments to the Constitution. Failure to do so shall be considered Treasonous or a felony against the will of the Citizens of the United States. And may be prosecuted by any group of Citizens numbering one hundred or more. That no change of intended meaning, words or Subversion to any Amendments or proposed Amendments shall occur.

Section11 - It shall be that a Citizen petition for Constitutional Amendment or Amendments that meet the requirement of two hundred thousand Citizens signatures from each of any twenty six states shall compel Congress to call for a Convention of States. Or proposed Amendments placed on a Federal Election Ballot for passage by the Citizens. Congress shall have a time limit of ninety days to enact either of these Actions. Failure to do so shall be considered Treasonous or a Felony against the will of the People.

Note- This gives We the People a direct voice in approving amendments as a whole. Thus by passing federal and state legislative influences. In addition, the simple majority vote lets legislators know that their inactions to protect our rights and freedoms cannot be held hostage or ignored.

Strict wording strengthens the next clause: BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS AND THE PRESIDENT AND THE SUPREME COURT SHALL BE BOUND TO ENACT AND ABIDE BY ALL EXISTING OR NEW AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. FAILURE TO DO SO SHALL BE CONSIDERED TREASONUOS OR A FELONEY AGIANST THE WILL OF THE CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES. This clause gives clear and unmistakable importance that living up to our constitution and its amendments by all government officials Is very Serious.

We all know that it is a very rare occasion that any legislators or the president will prosecute themselves for not obeying their oath of office or the Constitution. So, the next wording states the following: AND MAY BE PROSECUTED BY ANY GROUP OF CITIZENS NUMBERING ONE HUNDRED OR MORE. This gives us, as ordinary citizens, an avenue to hold our elected officials accountable.

THAT NO CHANGE OF MEANING, WORDS, OR SUBVERSION TO ANY AMENDMENTS AND OR PROPOSED AMENDMENTS SHALL OCCUR. This statement clearly notifies legislators and the president and the Supreme Court that the plain and direct wording of Amendments are not to be infringed upon. In addition, our courts and even the Supreme Court have an obvious directive as to Amendment intent. States the following. It shall be that a citizen petition for proposed constitutional amendment or amendments that meet the requirement of two hundred thousand citizen signatures from each of twenty-six states shall compel congress to call for a convention of states or proposed amendments placed on a federal election ballot for a vote of passage by the citizens. CONGRESS SHALL HAVE A TIME LIMIT OF NINETY DAYS TO ENACT EITHER OF THESE ACTIONS. FAILURE TO DO SO SHALL BE CONSIDERED TREASONOUS OR A FELONY AGAINST THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE.

Note – While the constitution has historically had a provision in Article V to add amendments by either both houses of Congress or by the states through a convention, it leaves out We the People. Amendments to the constitution should and shall always be the most supreme law of the land. All laws passed by any constitutional government shall be subject to the constitution. Two of the main purposes of a constitution is to ensure the freedoms and individual liberty of citizens through rights and to put limitations on governments. However, it should be that adding Amendments must not be taken lightly. Furthermore, The Adding Procedure should be somewhat strenuous and a process of perseverance to ensure the proposed amendments strength. However, this Amendment gives the people the right to propose amendments directly and vote on their passage. This Amendment clause will also compel Congress to put forth the proposed amendments to all citizens for a vote. Very strict criminal penalties for Congress members that don’t comply will act as a deterrent.

Amendment XXIX (29) – Limitation of Taxes

Section I – It shall be a total only of retail sales of goods and services produced by any individual and/or entity doing transactions within the United States and/or countries outside the United States at a taxable amount of 18 percent. (Exception: sales of goods or services by an individual citizen of twenty-five thousand dollars or less per year shall not be taxed.)

Note – This section is one of the most social and economic problem-solving amendments possible. Common sense tells us that any form of government that spends a lot of money outside fiscal responsibility and without accountability is a cesspool of corruption. This is especially true if they can tax the people at will. The yoke of heavy taxation is basically a form a slave labor and kills the freedoms enjoyed by the people.

The sixteenth amendment to the constitution states that congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment amount the several states and without regard to any census or enumeration. This amendment is the most evil corruption induced form of public slavery imaginable and shall be revoked and prohibited by all governments of the United States. However, governments must have money to operate, so the Freedom Amendments limit the taxes. And It shall be that we the people that will set the taxing limits. For all our Governments.

A retail sales tax is the best method for fairness regardless of one’s income. Everyone pays the same percentage: rich, poor, or of a middle income. We are all taxed equally as a percentage. There is no IRS nor state, county, or city taxes. Neither will there be annual property or vehicle tax collections. In addition, as noted in Section I, individual Citizens have the right to operate a small or home business that is doing sales of twenty-five thousand or less tax-free.

Section II (2) – This tax shall be the only and maximum amount to fund all federal, state, county, and city governments. Other fees, taxes, or collections of any kind shall not occur. It shall be that all government entities will have a time limit of one year from ratification to change taxing procedures.

Note – This section strictly limits to only one source that revenue can be collected by all governments within the United States. No other forms of collection in any way, shape, or form will be allowed. There are only one year to comply with these tax changes.

Section III (3) – This tax shall be the duty for collection by individual counties within each state. Each county shall deliver to the state and federal government their proportions by the fifteenth day of each month.

Note – This section is self-explanatory.

Section IV (4) – The portions of tax revenue shall be divided as follows. The ten percent shall remain in the county, of which three percent shall be set aside for basic healthcare payments and welfare of its citizens. The remaining seven percent shall be used for law enforcement, prosecution of offenses, fire protection, and other needs of the county, cities, or towns.

Note – It is only fitting that the larger share of retail tax of goods and services generated locally is spent locally for the benefit of the local communities at large. Example is the amount of three percent to be used for basic local health care.

Many different ideas come to mind that county officials may use. These ideas include dividing the money to county citizens in the way of medical voucher of a card such as HSA card, helping with copays or deductibles, etc. The remaining seven percent would be used for the general welfare of county citizens such as law enforcement, prosecution of offenses, and fire protection.

Section V (5) – The five percent shall go to state government which shall be used in priorities as follows: First, education funding up to a citizens age of eighteen years or considered grades first through twelfth. Second priority shall be the maintenance of state new or existing transportation infrastructure. Third priority shall be whatever other needs are required by the state or local government.

Note – This section outlines once again a limitation on spending by state government while ensuring the basic public needs as a whole. A basic education, regardless of income, would be included. However, it does not mean that private, home, or religion sponsored schools could not occur, but public money would be used for a basic education structure. Also, state money would be used for well-maintained roads and highways. One of the strongest elements of a thriving economy and a strong community and state is its transportation system.

Section VI (6) – The three percent shall go to the federal government for these purposes. For defense, protection, safety of all United States citizens as a whole, transportation infrastructure of federally recognized highway systems, and other needs that are provided only by the constitution.

Note – One of the most important sections of the freedom amendments is this section. It strictly limits the revenue that the federal government has to spend. Then it specifically states what the revenue can be used for. We as Citizens must take time to really think about how the federal government should be limited only to constitutional responsibilities. And all other responsibilities left to the states and we the people as stated in Amendment ten of the Bill of Rights. We, as citizens, shall decide the destiny of the federal government. And not the federal government deciding our destiny as it is currently.

Section VII (7) – Amend word changes to Article 1 Section 8. The wording as it states: “Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, impose and exercises shall change to read: “The Congress shall have power to distribute revenue collected to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States.

Note – This wording change is a must because once again we see how Congress had abused the power to tax us as citizens in about every conceivable way. This abuse has led to an evil government culture of corruption and dishonesty. Also, it has led us into financial bondage and extreme national debt. With the citizens controlling the revenue, We in turn, will control the spending and congress will only have the power to distribute revenue by constitutional provisions and direction from We the People.

Article 1 Section 7 – The wording that states that all bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of representatives shall change to read: All bills to distribute revenue shall originate in the house of representatives.

Note – This clause change goes hand-in-hand with Section VII (7) as to limit congressional representatives to only distribute revenue and takes away the responsibility of house of representatives to raise revenue. Remember, by adapting these Freedom Amendments, We the People shall decide the amount of revenue the governments have to spend.

Amendment XXX (30) – Structure of Tax Limits

Section I – It shall be that the sixteenth amendment to the constitution is hereby repealed and any form of income tax prohibited by federal, state, or local governments.

Note – This income tax amendment must be repealed because it gives direct authority and power to our governments to take money away from us as individual citizens, in any amount that they choose and any time they choose. This very abusive amendment is a direct manipulation of our level of lifestyle and things we can afford by us as the working class. We have all heard the saying “the rich get richer, the poor get poorer, and the working class just has to keep on working.” This is all because of the manipulation by our governments mainly due to income tax.

Section II – It shall be that a retail sales tax of eighteen percent shall be the maximum amount collected. That the percent number cannot be changed by any government entity of the United States, but only by a simple majority vote of all citizens. This vote shall be conducted every four years at the time of presidential election.

Note – This Section II clause is very powerful in that it sets the maximum amount of revenue that governments can collect from us as citizens. The best part is we as citizens are the ones that set the amount of revenue collected by all governments.

Section III (3) – Exception may require an increase of the tax percent number by congress in a circumstance of a declared war by congress. However, this increase would only last until the conclusion of that war. Any increase by congress shall be used for military purposes only. And shall have a time limit of one year.

Amendment XXXI (31) – Balance Budget and Debt Limit Amendment

Section I – It shall be that all governments of the United States shall balance budgets each year. Based on the preceding year’s income. It shall be that all governments debt limitation shall not exceed over twenty percent of an average of one year’s income.

Note – If we, as individuals, don’t balance our own budgets and overspend, we are personally liable. So, why on earth would we give someone else the right to take our own personal money from us to spend it without real limitation or accountability – thus passing the liability on to our children and grandchildren. Talk about financial slavery this it for generations. So, balancing budgets and limiting debt is the only way to financial freedom.

Section II – All Governments of the United States shall pay a minimum of five percent of monthly revenue to existing debt until conclusion of that debt. Furthermore, no other debts may occur until a balance of budgets.

Note – Currently, almost every city, county, state, and federal governments are in heavy debt. This section sets a strict requirement that each government entity will set aside a minimum amount for debt payoff. This even goes further to require that no continued new borrowing can occur until all debts are paid off. This section is one of the three ways that the Freedom Amendments require that governments get out of debt. The other two are, First in Amendment XXXII (32) states that all Wall Street-type transactions pay a two percent charge to the federal treasury strictly for our national debt payoff. The second way as stated in Amendment XXXVII (37) That the United States Treasury shall pay a two percent charge on the value of minted coins and currency be solely for national debt payoff. It only makes total sense to pay off our debts as soon as possible.

Amendments XXXII (32) – Citizen Banking Amendment

Section I – It shall be that the banking, loan institutions, and the Treasury of the United States shall be owned by the citizens of the United States. It shall be unlawful in any way, shape or form for foreign or private groups, corporations, individuals from outside the United States to have any ownership in and/or loan to financial institutions within the United States.

Note – This amendment clause simply states that we as citizens shall reap the profits and benefits of our banking and financial institutions. In addition, we will not be owing or indebted to any foreign interest.

Section II – All governments of the United States shall borrow money only from a citizen-owned bank at an interest rate of four percent. Federal, state, and local governments shall owe debt only to a citizen bank of the United States and no foreign entities of any type.

Note – This section clause helps reinforce Section I. That we as citizens own our own financial institutions outright. And that our governments borrow money only from us at an interest rate that will secure financial stability. While it is not wise to be in an over-burdening debt to ourselves, but it is totally unacceptable to be in debt to any foreign entities.

Section III – It shall be that Wall Street shall pay two percent on all Wall Street-type monetary transactions to the debt of the United States until conclusion of debt. It shall be that an additional two percent shall be paid on all Wall Street-type transactions divided equally among the fifty states these funds shall then be divided equally among citizen banks within each state. It shall be that these payments shall never be withdrawn but are the property of the citizen banks or citizen-owned savings and loan institutions audited by each state. And an Assembly of Individual Citizen depositors or owners.

Note – This section, as mentioned earlier, provides an additional way to pay off our national debt. Then this two percent would cease once the debt is paid in full.

However, an additional two percent would be charged on monetary transactions to help secure a reliable source of capital revenue to each state’s citizen-owned financial institutions. By exempting Wall Street-type transactions from the general retail tax percentage, it gives all states a more equal footing as to help provide financial security to the citizen-owned banks. Also, with a combined total tax of only eighteen percent, it would induce a significant increase in the American economy over a longer period of time by Wall Street-type investments.

Section IV (4) – All Wall Street-type monetary transactions shall be exempt from any and all sections as stated in Amendment XXIX (29) Limitation of Taxes. It shall be that a fourteen percent tax on all monetary transactions shall be paid directly to the Federal Treasury for Military purposes and defense of citizens only.

Note – By exempting wall street monetary transactions from federal retail tax amendments. It gives an amendment to help our most basic right of survival from any enemies by specifically directing an additional form of revenue to our military.

Section V (5) – Therefore, combined taxes on all Wall Street-type monetary transactions shall be subject to Amendment XXX (30) Structure of Tax Limits Section II which states that only a maximum amount of eighteen percent shall be collected which includes the two percent for national debt payoff and two percent to state citizen-owned banks as stated in this Amendment Section III.

Note – This Section does not hinder our abilities to invest money where and when we choose. In any business or venture at our liking. As a matter of fact, it greatly improves the investment climate because there is a limit we, as investor would pay in taxes, and does not exceed the eighteen percent retail sales tax limit. We are not taxed twice on retail and Wall Street-type investments because of exempting clause provided in Section IV of this Amendment.

Section VI (6) – It shall be that all individual monetary accounts held by the federal government such as social security, Medicare, or any others in any form shall be transferred to a citizens bank or institution of Citizens choosing. Payments on benefits shall meet the existing payouts set by the federal government until conclusion of payout. It shall be that the federal government shall not hold individual Citizens money in any form.

Note – This Section IV clause takes our retirement money out of government hands and into our own. The government does not pay us interest or gains on our retirement. Instead, spends it on other things by robbing us of financial long-term security, increasing taxes, and initiating penalties when we need the money most. This clause in the Freedom Amendments is just another example of a remedy to stop another big government abuse.

Amendment XXXIII (33) – Retirement or Social Security Amendment

Section 1-It shall be that all citizens shall pay into an individual retirement account a minimum of four percent of earnings. Held out and paid by his or her employer. Their retirement accounts shall be held in a bank trust until retirement age 65 years or upon earlier death paid to beneficiaries or paid out due to acquired disability. Self-employment citizens shall pay into an individual retirement account of minimum of two percent gross earning annually. Banks shall pay a minimum of two percent annually on all retirement accounts.

Note – Retirement is a basic measure of stability and wealth of a country. This retirement clause is a way for us to retire with a decent quality of life and gives us the ability to manage our own retirement as we see fit. Also, gives us much more security of having secured income at retirement age.

Amendment XXXIV (34) – Foreign Aid

Section 1 -It shall be unlawful to give, loan, or in any other monetary form aid to a foreign country. (Exception shall be for military defense purposes of the United States or extreme human suffering from result of natural disasters or war.)

Note – This amendment is entirely necessary because of the gross misuse of foreign aid and has been the cause of massive corruption in foreign governments as well as our own. Our current aid policy in many ways has turned out enhancing evil purposes instead of good, enriching evil men to do harm to their own people. Therefore, this Amendment is of extreme importance and limits aid for only extreme human suffering or military purposes.

Amendment XXXV (35) – Term Limits

Section1- It shall be that no elected official in any government of the United States shall hold office more than three terms. Supreme Court Justices shall serve no more than twelve years.

Note – Due to one of human nature’s negative sides, when one receives a position of authority and power in time it becomes addictive and excessive, therefore, it is corrupted and not in the Citizens best interest. So, it needs be that term limits and limits of time served must be put in the Amendments.

Amendment XXXVI (36) – Power of the States or by the People to Annul

Section1- It shall be that any legislation, regulations, mandates or laws passed by Congress, or executive orders signed by the president, or any supreme court decisions may be annulled by twenty-six state governors at any time or by Authority of a Citizen Assembly of People numbering twenty-five thousand from each of twenty-six states to annul. (Exception shall be a declaration of war, or defense, or foreign military matters of the United States.) A Declaration of War by Congress shall only be for an immediate threat of invasion or actual invasion from a foreign enemy upon United States borders or borders of United States Allies. Section II It shall be that any common law assembly of Citizens in each state, with the number of Twenty Five Citizens from with in each County, and by a simple Majority of the Counties in each State. Shall have the Authority at their choosing on behalf of the people of each State to Annul 0ne or any statutes, regulations, mandates, Executive orders, ordinances. And any other forms of infringement upon the Constitution and Common Laws within each State, be it State, County, City or Local Municipality Governments.

Note – This amendment is a great way to put a check on the overburdening laws, regulations, mandates, and executive orders that many times are not a positive benefit to us as citizens, and by having a simple majority of twenty-six state governors that are more accessible locally, we as a people would have a greater influence for curbing federal abuses. Also, this amendment gives we the people the right to Assemble to annul. The vote by twenty-six governors or by the people to annul would be an annulment for all fifty states. Many laws, regulations, mandates, and executive orders are created by governments to give power only to themselves and should not be tolerated by the American people if used to increase government abuses and power.

Amendment XXXVII (37) – National Debt Payoff

Section1- It shall be that the United States Treasury will pay two percent charge on the value of minted coins and currency solely for payment of the national debt until conclusion of that debt. Upon debt conclusion, the two percent shall be set aside for the sole purpose of a national disaster fund and a monetary reserve fund. It shall be that the United States Treasury is forbidden to owe or have debt, but shall only provide currencies for use of Citizen owned banks, loaning institutions, and public circulation.

Note – Our federal government at some point in the future will collapse and our country could go into anarchy. All this because of our unsustainable debt. Therefore, it is one of the Freedom Amendments main objectives is to limit spending and get our country out of debt. Then put a limit on debt any entity of government can carry. Also, upon the conclusion of our national debt, the two percent would remain in effect for the purpose of a national disaster fund and monetary reserve.

Amendment XXXVIII (38) – Personal Information

Section1- IT shall be that no local, state, or federal government or its agencies can collect or hold any personal information in any form or surveillance of any United States citizen, nor shall any corporation, company, groups, or any other citizen collect or hold personal information on any citizen. (Exception due only to proof of Citizenship, court order, or for medical providers with written consent of the citizen.) Any violator of this amendment shall be charged as a felon.

Note – Anyone that has the ability to collect and analyze our personal information can and will control every aspect of our lives, and we will lose control to a large extent over our own individual rights to privacy. This abuse takes away our freedom of choice by targeting what they think is best for us, and how they can manipulate your decisions. In all reality, it is a very clever way to separate us from our money to their money. Also, it gives them information about each of us, to see if we are obedient for increasing government control. Therefore, this amendment strictly limits the use of our personal information and provides for a felony charge for its violation.

Amendment XXXIX (39) – Elected and Appointed Officials’ Liabilities.

Section I – It shall be that elected government officials and or appointees to offices that upon a pondering of evidence gathered by any citizen or group of citizens as to behavior or acts that are subversive or contrary to the oath of office and constitution or used for personal gain in any way, shape, or form may be charged as a felon.

Note- This amendment clause puts we the people in charge of our elected public officials, and that they always adhere to their oath of office and constitution. While the constitution states in Article 1 Section IV that congress may make rules and judgments as to disorderly behavior or two-thirds expel a member. As we see all too often how officials abuse their authority and give themselves special privileges, it is time that their abuses end.

Section II – It shall be that elected officials shall not have special privileges or compensation after terms of service but shall live by the laws that are enacted on the Citizens. (Exception federal elected officials shall have all benefits retained by military personnel after discharge).

Note – This section limits all the perks and special privileges and excessive benefits that congress members have created for themselves. Not only in office but a lifetime thereafter. However, giving them the benefits of an honorable discharged veteran, such as medical benefits may help give some incentive to run for office, and it will help ensure that our veterans receive the adequate treatment they deserve.

Section III – It shall be that all compensation for members of congress and staff shall be set by their respective state legislators and no other compensation shall occur. States shall reimburse the United States treasury for said compensation.

Note – Instead of members of congress continuously raising their salaries and benefits (many becoming millionaires), this clause takes away that abuse (which we as citizens are paying for). Therefore, each member and staff will be paid according to the limits set by a decision of their own state legislators.

Amendment XL (40) – Border Security

Section1- It shall be that the borders of the United States shall be considered as defense of the United States and shall be secured by whatever means necessary against illegal immigration. It shall be the duty of president to enforce and for the congress to distribute necessary finding. Failure to do so shall be considered as treason (as a dereliction of duty to protect the citizens of the United States).

Note – This amendment clause is an absolute necessity. Border security is an essential protection for all citizens. Illegal migration is costing taxpayers billions of dollars annually for health care and education cost. Also, in today’s climate of terrorism and gangs, secured borders only make common sense as a first line of defense. Also, the amendment makes it clear that any member of congress or the president that does not comply could be prosecuted criminally as treason.

Amendment XLI (41) – Immigration

Section I – Article I Section 9 First clause that states that The Migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by Congress. Shall change to read: The immigration of individuals to the United States shall be set by a number amount each year by Congress. If Congress fails to act, the number shall be ten thousand per year.

Note – First, we must make a change in Article 1 Section 9. Because slavery in the United States has been abolished, and the criteria of becoming an American citizen is set federally for the nation, it makes sense to change the wording from states to federal. While this amendment makes it the responsibility of Congress to set the number of immigrants each year. Furthermore, this amendment clause has a very strict criminal penalty for noncompliance to anyone that harbors an illegal alien. It also makes the sponsor responsible for any expenses of the visa worker, so as not to be a burden to the taxpayers.

Section II – It shall be that a natural-born citizen shall be born of both United States Citizen Parents. A child born of only one Citizen Parent shall be admitted to United States if under eighteen years of age. But shall be required to adhere to the criteria for gaining citizenship but shall stay in United States until granted citizenship.

Section III – It shall be that undocumented individuals in the United States until the year 2021 shall be required to apply for citizenship within a three-year period. Failure to do so shall result in deportation.

Section IV – Work visas for non-citizens may be granted for a period of nine months. Each non-citizen shall have a corporate, company, business, or individual sponsor. Sponsors shall be liable for all worker conduct, medical expenses, and personal injury. Workers shall be compensated for like skills as any citizen. Sponsors shall be held liable for return of non-citizen to Country of Origin. Failure to heed these requirements shall be considered as a felony.

Amendment XLII (42) – Public Lands

Section I – It shall be that federal government cannot own or manage public lands other than provided by specific wording of the constitution. All public lands in the federal government shall return to the states. These lands shall be held in trust by individual states for use by all citizens of the United States. These lands shall retain their original designations and purposes. Other uses may occur, but only to enhance the designation and purposeful uses of each of these lands.

Note – The federal government for the most part has done a reasonable job of managing our national parks. However, the states in which they are located can and would do much better because of local resources and expertise. Also, the tourism and visitor revenue by constitutional mandate would be required to be invested back into these lands. All national parks, national forests, BLM lands, wilderness, and other federal lands will remain and shall not be diminished by authority of this constitutional amendment together with their designations and purposes.

Section II – It shall be that seventy-five percent of the monetary revenue from these public lands shall be invested back into improvements and enhancements as to viability of these lands.

Amendment XLIII (43) – Tribal Taxation

Section1- It shall be that tribal retail sales of goods and/or services that occur on behalf of tribal entities shall be subject to eighteen percent tax. Which would be collected by tribal government and audited by Bureau of Indian Affairs. It shall be that the ten percent shall be sent to the county, the five percent to the state, three percent to the federal government for the purposes of basic education, basic health care, and maintenance of roads on tribal lands.

Note – Taxation of Indian tribes should be at the same rate as all citizens of the United States. They are citizens with the same rights, privileges, and freedom protections as anyone else. However, they are reliant on basic schooling, basic medical needs, and roads which are largely provided by county, state, and federal governments. Tribal citizens are highly independent and have many small craft, farming, or ranching businesses. These small self-employed businesses help to sustain their livelihood. Also, many of our elderly citizens of all walks of life could create side incomes to help with retirement which is the biggest reason for the twenty-five thousand exception in amendment XXIX Section I.

Amendment XLIV (44) – Abortion

Section 1 -It shall be unlawful for any government and/or public money used in any way, shape, or form for abortions. Also, any entities that have influences for abortions.

Note – This amendment is very short, to the point, and self-explanatory. While it is by law a woman’s right to choose, it is also a right of a citizen who does not believe in abortion not to pay for it. This amendment still leaves open and honors the right of we the people to petition, and governments to address grievances as a constitutional right of the people.

Amendment XLVI (46) Lobby of Congress

Section I – It shall be that by prosecution of a felony that no special interest group, corporations or business foreign or domestic shall lobby, influence, or coerce any member of congress. But shall respond for information only by the specified, detailed written request of a Congress member. And shall be on Record for Public Viewing Instantly. Or by a written petition by any citizen or group of citizens to Congress for a redress of grievances as provided by the First Amendment to the Constitution.

Note – This section helps to keep our elected congress members honest and not constantly being harassed by powerful influences from people, special interest groups, or corporations. These powerful influences almost never have anything to do about protection or our rights, freedoms, or liberties. It is quite the opposite. It is most always about money, power, and control that they hope to gain over rights, freedom, and liberty. This is the intent of this Amendment to eliminate that influence and gives a criminal action for violators.

Section II – It shall be that all Judges and Prosecuting Attorneys in a court of law shall prescribe a practice of Common Law. Any Neglect or abuse of Constitutional Rights and Common Law by his or her position as a Judge or Prosecuting Attorney shall be Remedied by dismissal (as a record of Dismissal shall show) by any Assembly of Citizens in the number of twenty-five within that district area shall upon proof, by evidence, shall have the Authority to dismiss. (Exception: Supreme Court Judges and Judges with Jurisdiction over more than one state area.)

Note – Judges and Prosecuting attorneys nowadays are way overkill based on a person being guilty until he or she proves their innocence. Instead of the proof being at the hands of the accuser or prosecuting attorney. We are innocent until proven guilty. Also, many of our laws today are statutory in nature that take away our freedoms and rights. They have penalties of large fines (these are mainly about collecting money from us and control over us), imprisonment, or both. These laws, regulations, licenses, taxes, permits, etc are usually handled by a judge and prosecuting attorney that presumes you and I guilty. However, common law is usually based on precedence and actual means of basic damages. And that is of personal physical (bodily) injury or personal property harm. Therefore, this section helps to hold judges and prosecuting attorneys accountable.

Amendment XLV (45) Political Campaigns

Section 1 -It shall be that all monetary funds used in Political campaigns must derive from within the area that the office-seeker represents. No outside money in any way, shape, or form shall be allowed. Contribution limit caps per individual donations shall be five thousand dollars. Any and all other limit caps per contribution shall not exceed ten thousand dollars. Any abuse by any individual or individuals to this amendment shall be charged as a felon.

Note – Many campaigns and candidates are manipulated and controlled by special interest groups and corporate money which is outside of the candidate’s area and not by the people he or she is supposed to represent. Therefore, leaving you and me with a candidate that doesn’t represent us, but is corrupted from the get-go by the Big Money donors. This Amendment puts restraints on campaign abuse and then backs it up with criminal penalties for those who try to abuse the contribution limits.

Amendment CLVII (47) – Protection of Free Enterprise

Section I – It shall be that any government entity which includes a town, city, county, state and federal government and their agencies shall not provide influences and/or control any services and/or goods that are not specifically identified in the constitution and/or could be provided by free enterprise. (Exception shall only be for deceptive and/or manipulation of pricing also, a shortage or monopoly of goods or services and/or of a safety concern that is detrimental to society.) But Safety shall not jeopardize or conflict upon an individual Citizen rights, freedoms and liberty provided by this constitution.

Section II – Any such goods or services provided by any governments entity that is not specifically identified in the constitution shall be terminated within a one-year period from passage of this amendment.

Note – This amendment strictly limits our government’s influence and/or control of free enterprise. Our governments are one of the largest factors in private business manipulation and failures. Free enterprise without overburdening government control is our country’s best way for economic increase and stability. It also helps ensure our individual business success.

Amendment XLVIII (48) Sheriff as Supreme Law Office and Freedom of Citizen Movement

Section I – It shall be that the duly elected sheriff of each county within the United States, shall be the supreme law enforcement Authority. And that no other individual or group of individuals from any Federal, State, City, or Town Government and/or it Agencies shall exercise any authority over a County Sheriff. All other law enforcement agencies within each county shall be subject to the direction and authority of the county sheriff and no other.

Section II – The county Sheriff shall form a militia of local citizens as a line of first defense. And shall have the authority to call upon any local, state, and/or Federal law enforcement agencies or officers to protect all County Citizens as circumstances warrant.

Section III – It shall be a Sheriff’s duty to protect county citizens and businesses against physical damages and personal harm by whatever means necessary.

Section IV – It shall be that a Citizen’s right to free, unrestricted movement within the United States and will not be infringed upon by any laws or actions of any law enforcement entities within the United States. (Exception: shall be only for a conviction of common law crime and punishable by imprisonment.)

Section IV – County Sheriffs shall exercise his or her Authority to protect Citizens against unjust laws contrary to an individual’s innocence until proven guilty. Which shall be done by a common law assembly or jury of his or her peers. Protecting all rights, liberties, freedoms, and pursuit of happiness. Which are guaranteed by the supreme laws, of this constitution of the United States.

Note – This amendment is probably the most powerful amendment for protection of our constitutional rights, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. By constitutionally giving our local elected sheriff as the supreme law enforcement officer in the United States. (Which in reality he has had all along Mack/Printz v U.S.:____). We as Citizens at our local level have direct control over our protection and safety. Not only of our rights, liberties, and freedoms, but our personal family, and business well-being as well.

All this because we as Citizens are our own Prosecutor, Judge, and Jury. Which is done by our local vote for our County Sheriff. We must start with our own Neighborhoods as a place of surety and well-being. Thus ensuring ourselves, families, and business opportunities to grow and prosper in full harmony and happiness.

Amendment XLIX (49) Protection of Constitution

Section 1 -It shall be that any individual or group of individuals that promotes, indoctrinates, influences in any way, shape or form ideologies that infringe and/or jeopardize this Constitutional Republic and/or individual Citizens rights, freedoms, protection, and liberty guaranteed by this Constitution and Common law shall be charged as a crime of Treason. With conviction as a felon. Subject to minimum of five years imprisonment and deportation.

Note – This amendment is an excellent closing amendment to the Freedom Amendments. It is a very sad thing that an Amendment like this is even necessary. However with dedicated enemies to our freedoms and liberty that live within our Country. Which we have elected into a corrupted Culture of greed, lust for power, and financial corruption. Also self-importance, and financial gain. This powerful culture must be broken by all of us as Citizens. We must put an end immediately to this culture of government control. Do you often wonder why we elect seemingly good people in federal, state, and county governments and in reality nothing changes? And the lust for power, authority, self-enrichment just keeps right ongoing. That is because we as Citizens in the past have done nothing to Correct it. BUT NOW WE CAN AND WILL. The Freedom Amendments are designed to break up that very culture. We at Freedom Amendments Corporation have designed a very sustainable way to do just that by adopting these Amendments as a whole. These Amendments crush governments accelerated appetite to limit our rights, freedom, and liberty. Not to mention control over our money. Please ponder these Amendments and their benefits for our nation and the sake of our Children and following posterity.

The Constitution of the United States is the foundation of our Federal Government. It is often called the supreme law of the land no law may be passed that contradicts its principles. At the same time, it is flexible and allows for changes in the Government. The Constitution is known as a “living” document because it can be amended, although in over 200 years there have only been 27 amendments.

The Constitution is organized into three parts. The first part, the Preamble, describes the purpose of the document and the Federal Government. The second part, the seven Articles, establishes how the Government is structured and how the Constitution can be changed. The third part, the Amendments, lists changes to the Constitution the first 10 are called the Bill of Rights.

The Constitution established a Federal democratic republic. It is the system of the Federal Government it is democratic because the people govern themselves and it is a republic because the Government’s power is derived from its people.

The purpose of our Federal Government, as found in the Preamble of the Constitution, is to "establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity." The Founding Fathers established three main principles on which our Government is based:

  • Inherent rights, or rights that anyone living in America has
  • Self-government, or Government by the people
  • Separation of powers, or branches of Government with separate powers

After the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), the states were functioning under the Articles of Confederation, but the Articles provided little guidance to the states. In September of 1786, there was a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland, where representatives from New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, and Pennsylvania met to see what they could do about trade barriers set up among the states. The system of government set up by the Articles of Confederation did not regulate trade among states and needed to be changed.

What are the First Ten Amendments to the United States Constitution?

The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are also frequently called the Bill of Rights, and they set out a variety of freedoms that citizens and residents of the United States enjoy. Their status as “amendments” means that they were written after the Constitution and they aren’t part of that document’s body. They are additions that lawmakers formally agreed to through a process called “ratification,” and they are just as enforceable as the original document. All ten were ratified at the same time in 1791. They are important for many different reasons, but securing individual freedoms and liberties is one of their primary goals. All are still very much in force today.

When They Were Introduced

The Bill of Rights was formally ratified by the United States Congress on December 15, 1791. The amendments were introduced and debated long before this, though James Madison, then a representative from Virginia but later to become to be the country’s fourth president, is credited with proposing them initially. Madison is actually thought to have proposed the bill as 12 separate “articles,” and his suggestion at first was that they be introduced into the main Constitution. This is not ultimately what the Congress decided to do. The ideas were discussed in both the House and the Senate over the span of more than a year, and were ultimately modified into ten individual amendments that together comprised a separate, but essential and binding, part of the Constitution.

Main Purpose

Each amendment focuses on some aspect of liberty and freedom. In part, this is why the ten are called the Bill of Rights — they set out and define the rights of the people of the United States. The amendments also set important limits on the power of the Congress and the government. When the United States was just starting out, there were a number of people, lawmakers included, who were worried about the dangers of unchecked government power, and who were concerned that the new Constitution didn’t do enough to protect individual privacy, liberty, and freedom. These first amendments largely sought to calm those fears.

General Importance

There are a number of reasons why the first ten amendments are important. Aside from the liberties they guarantee, they also set an important precedent and model when it comes to the role of Congress to make and enact laws, as well as the fluid nature of the Constitution. Their ratification was the first time that the nation’s lawmakers came together to discuss how laws could be reinterpreted over time, and how changes in cultural expectations and understandings could influence the strict parameters of the Constitution.

Actual Text

The amendments begin with a preamble that sets out the goals and intent of what it to follow. The full text is reprinted below.

Preamble: The Conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government will best insure the beneficent ends of its institution

Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States all or any of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the said Constitution, namely:

Amendment I: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II: A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III: No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation to be confronted with the witnesses against him to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Amendment VII: In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

U.S. Constitution: Preamble and Amendments

I agree that we need a 28th amendment exactly as stated above .

I ABSOLUTELY agree with Dennis Purvis!

I think that the 28th amendment should be Equal Rights, seen as it is one of the most proposed amendments and in 2010 for every $1 a man made a woman made .77. And nowadays women have caught up to men on education standards and women actually surpass men in educational achievements. So why are men payed more? And the United States is one of two countries that doesn’t give women anything for maternity leave/having a child while all other countries do (with the exception of North Korea because we don’t know like anything about them).

The wage gap is a myth–not real. Women also are given maternity leave in the US…

The wage gap is real as you are. Just because you don’t want to believe it, doesn’t mean it’s true. I completely agree with Lauren

Hey yo Sam, Brian doesn’t want to believe the wage gap doesn’t exist BECAUSE it doesn’t exist. Men do harder, more punishing jobs that women don’t want to do, then they turn around and spout lies like “this is oppression” or “women need to be treated equally”. Women do all the soft cushy jobs and expect to make as much, or sometimes more than men. While Brian was right about fraternity leave, there are other things like women taking more days off, and again, men doing the harder job. Some women are always complaining about a supposed “wage gap”, but if they want .33 more to a dollar, than they should do the more dangerous jobs, the harder jobs, the jobs that take years of school. Think before you talk shit.

Ron, while I applaud your passion, the wage gap is very real, but only in certain businesses…a female friend of mine, and I, both went after a position at a health insurance company…now, I had been in car insurance for a year, she for three, and she was damn good at it. They offered each of us a position, and MY starting hourly rate was 24.50, where hers was (drumroll) 20.75….more experience, better at the job, and was STILL offered less. To this day, I’m positive that happened bc of something she couldn’t control: her genitals.

Your facts are wrong, but you have a valid point

You literally think women get less? NO! That would be illegal and you can sue if it would be that way! Women make less than men by the way they work, not in general. Women generally work less than men and women take less stressful jobs than men, so that’s why men get paid more. Not to mention the fact that women tend to focus on families more and I’m not saying that that is a bad thing.

Unequal pay is not illegal but I would say it’s immoral. My husband and I are both primary care docs, with the same job, hours, etc., working for the same employer in the same office. He is paid 10% more than me. Crazy, right? I actually generate more income for our practice, too. We wouldn’t sue because it would take time and money and energy, and alienate our practice and detract from the thing we love to do—take care of people.

If what you say is true, women are paid 23% less than men, business owners would never hire men.

Years ago there was a wage gap, but not now. Years ago only women could get maternity leave, but SOME jobs offer it to fathers as well but I don’t know if for as long. And both mothers and father’s are allowed to take family medical leave for family members.

Dennis excellent idea, However that’s a little too much like Right!

Because Lauren may usually is connected with the amount of work are you going to pay a woman 1 dollar to move a 50lb and have it take her 2 trips or pay the dollar to someone who can do it in 1 trip which is usually a man

On the contrary Noah, about the same amount of women are fit and able to carry large loads as men. And besides, most work in America today doesn’t revolve around physical activity.

Right now it just turned sept. 17. We are trying to overturn the Citizens United ruling, Go to Move To Amend
Sign the petition, donate,volunteer, if nothing sign the petition! This would give us a chance.
I also just want to state that these previous comments are very ignorant. These are the people that put forth no effort in finding out what’s going on, because they already know they live in the greatest country in the world, their news channel(which also funds politicians) tells them all they need to know…

Additionally it would be awsome if you could help take on the DARK ACT, if you don’t know about gmos,pesticides,herbicides,chem. Fertilizers or the correlation between the side effects of these chemicals, and major diseases & cancers that are reocurring, as well as the long list of death ingredients in your food you probably want too:)
PS it stands for Deny Americans the Right to Know.

i do not agree with those ratty answers there is 27 not 28 so dont try to change that

Okay Noah i get your point of view, how ever it very unlikely that “woman” took on a job where she could not carry a 50lb bag from point A to point B. I my self can do that with ease and i am a woman.

The constitution as it is should not be changed, as a republican I highly think we need to stop changing the government of the U.S.A like the last few presidents have been doing. I also think major crimes such as murder, rape, burglary e.t.c should have a much larger consequence then they do now. Any replies will be greatly appreciated and God bless you all.

i agree but even with that people will still do those thing.

How bout you all just shut up. None of you know about the Constitution as much as you think you do. I need to know more about it too. But don’t think you were one of the men standing right next to James Madison as he wrote this document, cause yall aint!

oh and everyone who wasn’t included in the ignorrant back talk, you all are very smart and sweet. God Bless!

i personly don’t like trump but i don’t hate him.

Trump is the best thing that has happened to the U.S ever since Abraham Lincoln.

The 28th Amendment: An Amendment to the 1st Amendment Free Speech Clause.

No person shall be allowed to comment on an issue about the US Constitution without having passed, within the last year, a written essay exam on Constitutional History with at least an 85% passing score, as graded by a panel of liberal and conservative professors of the subject.

Roland that’s super valid but only on like specific pages because those who haven’t still should get to comment.

1. Makes the people feel empowered as well

2. Makes them feel protected

28th Amendment: if the gov’t shut down, Congress should not be paid or receive any compensation!

in 1970 i worked alongside several women on an assembly line in a G,M, plant we made the same money, same benefits because we were union workers equal pay for equal work yet everyone says unions are bad.

What amendment established the “Electoral College”? Elites use the Electoral College in spite of the using popular votes as the decider. The past two presidents were elected by the EC despite the overwhelming popular votes.

What is wrong here. We have lost our votes. Let us take it back. I have written more than ten letters to members of Congress with this question with no reply. They are the elites.

Denis, Totally agree with you, but why stop there? We need Congress and all federal employees to be reliant on Social Security and Medicare /Medicaid like the rest of the citizenry. Why should congress have a private pension and private health care plans. These federal system policies has bled into state and local government policies are are a primary reason why some of our states and local municipalities are nearing or have reached insolvency.

If as citizens are ALL equal under law, should not ALL be treated equally.

I totally agree. It’s not right and fair that we have to suffer while they live like kings and queens. It’s only right and fair if they got treated the same way we do.

That could be the 29th Amendment because first we have to ratify The Equal Rights Amendment that we’ve been trying to ratify for the last 50 years. The ERA would then be the 28th Amendment, and your’s would make a wonderful 29th! And why not, it’s a living document!

the wage gap is not real. studies have proven that women are lead towards different jobs due to evolution and how our brains have been wired. these jobs tend to pay less. it is no a wage gap it is just preference of jobs.


I finally can share and have of my own the 27 ammendments of the constitution and i’m going to read each and every one. I’m in awe of things ive learned in my fifties. Now, I’m looking forward to fighting for Reparations.

Congress routinely excludes itself from laws it passes but in the Federalist papers it explicitly could not do so. Unfortunately that was not included into the Constitution as passed.

What about Amendment the 0.5th Amendment: Right of Citizens and Residenst of all states and territories, to live without having this right infringed upon or affected by other individuals, corporations, or amendments, state or federal laws unless otherwise stated by criminal offense.

Also, we should find a place to put: Mandatory castration for all pedophile and violators of live chickens and any other farm/ ranch animals or house pets, except pitbulls (they take care of the castration for we the people).

I think that it’s funny that people come here to complain about our country and that we need to do this and that but if we all just live our lives there won’t be so many problems.

Fortunately laws are not set in stone and for the most part we could and or should abide by them,However as a matter of fairness and for the sake of applying to most of our population in general we need to tweek our laws, In the interest of equal justice this system is the best on the planet. We really do need to teach to all our people from the very young and up about the constitution,how it is the guiding force for this nation’s successes,Why the U.S is held to a higher standard by every nation that seeks the same values.Be proud of that.

When you are angry, close your mouth, lest you increase your anger

I is time for the 28th amendment. I think the 28th amendment should be that the president should be able to do whatever he wants but all the head of law, including congress, governor, people of the U.S. what they think about the war happening. That is my opinion on what the 28th amendment should be.

Yall need to shut up. Women getting paid less is ABSOLUTELY a thing, i have seen it first hand. You guys dont have you worry about that because your men. stop talking like you know what your talking about.

I think one of the most important things we the American people should demand is an amendment that limits the terms of all senators and representatives. Theses positions were never meant to be a full time job much less a life long career. We need fresh ideas from real American citizens that actually hold our concerns and interest above their own desire for power and money.

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