July 10, 2014 Day 172 of the Sixth Year - History

July 10, 2014 Day 172 of the Sixth Year - History

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President Barack Obama talks with Kinsey Button at the Magnolia Cafe in Austin, Texas, July 10, 2014.

9:50AM THE PRESIDENT attends a DNC roundtable
Private Residence, Austin, Texas
Closed Press

12:15PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks
The Paramount Theatre, Austin, Texas
Pooled for television cameras and open to still photographers and correspondents

2:25PM THE PRESIDENT departs Austin
Austin-Bergstrom International Airport
Open to Pre-Credentialed Media

EDT

5:00PM In-Town Travel Pool Call Time

6:15PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Joint Base Andrews

Out-of-Town Travel Pool Coverage


6:30PM THE PRESIDENT arrives at the White House

South Lawn


Historical Events on July 18

Event of Interest

1290 King Edward I orders expulsion of Jews from England, this edict will remain in place for 350 years

Canonization

1323 Pope John XXII proclaims theologian Thomas Aquinas a saint in Avignon

    The bishop of Florence blesses the first foundation stone for the new campanile (bell tower) of the Florence Cathedral, designed by the artist Giotto di Bondone Pope's authority declared void in England Willem of Orange recognized as viceroy of Holland/Friesland/Utrecht Spanish troops occupy Mantua -20] Battle at Warsaw: Swedish King Charles X Gustav beats John II Casimir and occupies Warsaw

Event of Interest

1696 Tsar Peter I's fleet occupies Azov at mouth of Don River

    Decree orders all Jews expelled from Brussels Battle at Banja Luka: Turkish army beats Austrians 1st half-page newspaper ad is published (NY Weekly Journal) Lemuel Haynes, escapes from slave holder in Framingham, Massachusetts Society of the Dutch Literary forms Boston Gazette publishes "Liberty Song", America's 1st patriotic song

Event of Interest

1864 US President Abraham Lincoln asks for 500,000 volunteers for military service

    Pope Pius IX and the First Vatican Council officially proclaim the concept of papal infallibility The Ballot Act introduces the secret ballot in elections in Britain previously votes made openly Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Frank Hadow makes his lone Wimbledon appearance, and wins beats defending champion Spencer Gore 7-5, 6-1, 9-7 Louisville Tony Mullane is 1st to pitch righty then lefty First human test of a vaccine against cholera Ukrainian bacteriologist Waldemar Huffkine risks his life by testing it on himself Australian Harry Graham scores 107 on cricket debut Australia v England, Lord's Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Lottie Dod beats Blanche Bingley-Hillyard 6-8, 6-1, 6-4 for her 3rd consecutive and 5th overall Wimbledon singles title US Open Men's Golf, Shinnecock Hills: American-based Scot James Foulis wins by 3 strokes ahead of Englishman Horace Rawlins George Giffen is 1st to complete 1000/100 double, in 30th Test Cricket Indian born K S Ranjitsinhji completes an unbeaten 154 on Test cricket debut for England in 2nd Test against Australia at Old Trafford Cap Anson is 1st to get 3,000 hits Florenz Ziegfeld's "Follies of 1907" premieres in NYC French troops occupy Casablanca

Event of Interest

1914 Gandhi leaves South Africa after successfully leading campaigns of Passive Resistance

    Second Battle of Isonzo begins and ends with over 80,000 casualties Boston Braves start move from last place to become world series champs World War I: US and French forces launch Aisne-Marne offensive

Baseball Record

1921 Babe Ruth achieves 139 home runs and becomes the all-time home run leader in Major League Baseball, taking the title from Roger Connor

    Black Sox trial begins in Chicago Babe Ruth smacks a home run a MLB record 575 feet in New York Yankees' 10-1 win over the Tigers at Detroit's Navin Field British House of Lords accepts new divorce law KPD points out Rote Frontkampferbund against Nazi

Historic Publication

1925 Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf (original title was the catchy "Four and a Half Years (of Struggle) Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice")

    The South Africa author and journalist, Herman Charles Bosman, shoots and kills his stepbrother David Russell during a quarrel 20th Tour de France won by Lucien Buysse of Belgium

Event of Interest

    SHO soccer team forms in Old Beijerland 1st air-conditioned ship (Mariposa) launched Belgium, Luxembourg & Netherlands sign Ouchy Convention, a customs treaty US and Canada sign a treaty to develop St Lawrence Seaway

Event of Interest

1936 Spanish Civil War: General Francisco Franco issues manifesto and leads an uprising in the Spanish army stationed in Morocco

Event of Interest

1936 Charles "Lucky" Luciano is sentenced to 30 to 50 years in state prison

Oops, Wrong Way!

1938 Douglas "Wrong Way" Corrigan arrives in Ireland after a 28 hours flight, supposedly left NY flying for California

Presidential Convention

1940 Democratic Convention nominates FDR for a 3rd term

    SS drowns 40 Jews in Dvina River, Belorussia 1st legal New Jersey horse race in 50 years Garden State Park track opens Test flight of German Messerschmitt Me-262 using only its jet engines for the first time British assault on Catania, Sicily Giants and Phillies strand record 30 baserunners, NY wins, 10-6 7:45 Operation Goodwood: British assault east of Caen Allies air raid railways at Vaires, Paris Arne Andersson runs world record 1 mile (4:01.6) RAF Mosquitos attack Cologne and Berlin British air raid on German convoy SW of Heligoland British troops occupy Bourquebus hill range, Normandy Polish troops under General Anders occupy Ancona Italy US troop march into St Lo British seize "Exodus 1947" ship of Jewish immigrants to Palestine

Event of Interest

1947 King George VI signs Indian Independence Act

    US President Harry Truman signs Presidential Succession Act Tigers shut out Yanks 2-0, end 19 game winning streak US begins administering Trust Territory of Pacific Islands "Marinka" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 168 performances Pat Seerey of Chicago White Sox hits 4 HRs in an 11 inning game Uruguay accepts its constitution

Boxing Title Fight

1951 Jersey Joe Walcott at 37 becomes oldest to win heavyweight champion

    KWGN TV channel 2 in Denver, Colorado (IND) begins broadcasting Cards losing 8-1 to Phillies begin stalling in 5th, they forfeit game 1st electric power generated from atomic energy sold commercially 280 mm rain in Martinstown, Dorset (UK-record) Erno Gero succeeds Matyas Rákosi as party leader of Hungary 6th British Empire Games and Commonwealth Games open in Cardiff, Wales William 'Bill' Wright becomes the 1st African American to win a major golf tournament (U.S. Amateur Public Links Championships)

Film Premier

1959 "The Nun's Story" based on the novel by Kathryn Hulme, starring Audrey Hepburn premieres in Los Angeles

    46th Tour de France won by Federico Bahamontes of Spain 1st UN troops reach Congo Baseball's NL votes to add Houston and NY franchises Premier Kishi of Japan resigns Commissioner Ford Frick rules Babe Ruth's record of 60 HR in 154-game sched in 1927, must be broken in 1st 154 of 162 games

Event of Interest

1962 Minnesota Twins Bob Allison and Harmon Killebrew hit grand slams in 1st inn & Harmon Killebrew connect in a club-record, 11-run 1st inning

    Failed military coup in Syria The United Nations Special Committee on Apartheid releases its second interim report pressing for international sanctions against South Africa, particularly the supply of arms, ammunition and petroleum Race riot in Harlem (NYC) riots spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant (Brooklyn) Zond 3 launched to fly by Moon, enters solar orbit Carl Sagan turns 1 billion seconds old Gemini 10 launches John Young & Michael Collins Silver hits record $1.87 an ounce in NY

Event of Interest

1968 The Intel Corporation is founded in Santa Clara, California

Agreement of Interest

1969 Joe Namath agrees to sell interest in Bachelors 3, to stay in NFL

    "Boy Friend" closes at Ambassador Theater NYC after 119 performances Arthur Brown arrested for stripping on stage in Palemo Sicily Ron Hunt gets hit by a pitch for a record 119th time WJCL TV channel 22 in Savannah, GA (ABC) begins broadcasting

Baseball Record

1970 Willie Mays becomes 10th baseball player to get 3,000 hits

    58th Tour de France: Eddy Merckx of Belgium wins third straight Tour general classification as well as points and combination categories 200,000 attend Mt Pocono rock festival in Penns

Event of Interest

1972 Egyptian president Anwar Sadat throws out 20,000 Russian military aides

    Mike Procter 8-73 with hat-trick, plus 51 and 102, Gloucs v Essex The 100th British soldier to die in the Northern Ireland "troubles" is shot by a sniper in Belfast

Event of Interest

1972 Leader of the British Labour Party Harold Wilson holds meeting with representatives of the Irish Republican Army

    US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site World's tallest structure, 646 metre Polish radio mast, completed Jury can't decide on trial of Dave Forbes of Boston Bruins (1st athlete indicted for excessive violence during play) "Something's Afoot" closes at Lyceum Theater NYC after 61 performances Stockhausens "Sirius" premieres in NYC Thiokol conducts 2-min firing of space shuttle's SRB at Brigham, Ut Nadia Comăneci becomes the first gymnast in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 score (total 7) at Montreal Games 63rd Tour de France won by Lucien Van Impe of Belgium Hugh Leonard's "Da" premieres in London Vietnam becomes a member of the UN Egyptian and Israeli officials begin 2 days of talks Gold hits record $303.85 an ounce in London USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR

Event of Interest

1980 Billy Joel's "Glass Houses" album tops US charts, featuring "Its Still Rock 'n' Roll to Me"

    Failed attack on Iran ex-premier Bakhtiar in Neuilly, France Federal court voids Selective Service Act as it doesn't include women Quett Masire installed as President of Botswana Rohini 1, 1st Indian satellite, launches into orbit Polish communist party selects ex-party leader Edward Gierek

British Golf Open

1982 British Open Men's Golf, Royal Troon: American Tom Watson wins his 4th Open Championship, 1 stroke clear of Peter Oosterhuis and Nick Price

Presidential Convention

1984 Walter Mondale wins the Democratic Party presidential nomination in San Francisco

    21 people are killed and 19 are injured in a massacre in a McDonalds restaurant in San Ysidro, California it ends with the shooting of its perpetrator, James Oliver Huberty USSR performs underground nuclear Test MLB Kansas City Royals announce that manager Dick Howser, 50, has a brain tumor Videotapes released showing Titanic's sunken remains Molly Yard elected new President of National Organization for Women

Baseball Record

1987 NY Yanks Don Mattingly ties record of HRs in 8 cons games

    British Open Men's Golf, Royal Lytham & St. Annes: Spaniard Seve Ballesteros wins his 3rd Open title by 2 shots from Nick Price of Zimbabwe Abu Nidal terrorists kill 9 on cruise ship City of Poros Shooting begins on Bond film "License to Kill" 48 cm rainfall at Rockport, West Virginia (state record) Florida Marlins' logo unveiled

Meeting of Interest

1991 Mike Tyson meets Miss Black America contestants

    Sharon Belden, of Florida, 25, crowned Miss World USA The ten victims of the La Cantuta massacre disappear from their university in Lima, Peru British Open Men's Golf, Royal St George's GC: Australian Greg Norman fires final round 64 (–6) to win his 2nd Open title, 2 strokes ahead of Englishman Nick Faldo

Event of Interest

1993 Afghan President Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif resign

    Liberal-Democratic Party loses Japan's parliamentary election Bomb attack on Jewish center AMIA in Buenos Aires, 86 killed Comet Shoemaker-Levy's largest collision with Jupiter leaves black spot 12,000 km across Court upholds NBA salary cap and draft rights Crayola announces introduction of scented crayons Houston Astros tie NL comeback record, trailing 10-0, beat Cards 15-12 NY Jets sign USA soccer goalkeeper Tony Miola as a place kicker

Event of Interest

1994 "Kiss From a Rose" released by Seal (Grammy Record and Song of the Year)

Historic Publication

1995 "Dreams from My Father", a memoir by Barack Obama is published by Times Books

    Storms provoke severe flooding on the Saguenay River, beginning one of Québec's costliest natural disasters ever The UN approves an Iraqi aid distribution plan, a major step forward in the direction of allowing Iraq to sell oil under Resolution 986 British Open Men's Golf, Carnoustie: Scotsman Paul Lawrie wins his only major title by 3 strokes in 4-hole aggregate playoff with Jean van de Velde & Justin Leonard recovers from 10 shots behind after 3rd round for biggest comeback in major championship history van de Velde famously triple-bogies last hole New York Yankees' David Cone becomes 15th pitcher to throw a perfect game (6-0 vs Montreal)

Event of Interest

2004 British Open Men's Golf, Royal Troon: American Todd Hamilton wins his only major title, defeating 2002 champion Ernie Els of South Africa by a stroke in a 4-hole playoff


Historical Events on July 21

    Crete Earthquake followed by tsunami around the Eastern Mediterranean allegedly destroys Alexandria Holy Roman Catholic emperor Louis III captured Emperor Otto II gives earl Leopold I, East Bavaria

Victory in Battle

1403 Battle of Shrewsbury: Army led by the Lancastrian King of England, Henry IV defeats a rebel army led by Henry "Harry Hotspur" Percy of Northumberland thus ending the Percy challenge to the throne. Also the first battle English archers fought each other on English soil.

    Pope Paul III begins inquisition against Protestants (Sactum Officium) The first landing of French troops onto the coast of the Isle of Wight during the French invasion Battle at Jemmingen: Alva's troops beat Dutch rebellion Mechelen surrenders to Duke of Parma First engagement between the English fleet and the Spanish Armada off the Eddystone Rocks Spanish explorer Álvaro de Mendaña is the first European to discover the Marquesas Island in Eastern Polynesia

Event of Interest

1669 John Locke's Constitution of English colony Carolina is approved


8. The Wilmington Insurrection (1898)

North Carolina had long been a hotbed of racial unrest. In 1898, only 35 years after blacks got the right to vote, many of the whites in the area openly hated them and did not choose their words carefully when expressing this. The Republican Party was biracial, but the Democratic Party ran an 1898 campaign of regaining white supremacy. The Democrats regained control of the state legislature, and the some whites in Wilmington formed a group of 25 who demanded that Alexander Manly, a black newspaper owner, be forced to shut down and leave. Manly refused, whereupon Alfred Waddell, a white supremacist and Congressman who had just been unseated, organized a group of 2,000 armed white Spanish-American War veterans who marched to the newspaper office. They destroyed the printing equipment and burned the building to the ground.

Waddell intended to disband the group, as the job was done and Manly had gone into hiding. But the mob quickly turned anarchic, and began hunting down and attacking blacks all over the city. Violence continued for several days. Death estimates range from six to 100, all blacks, with the wide range due to the incomplete records of the hospitals. Many blacks fled the city and hid in the swamps, while others left the area permanently. Waddell was subsequently “elected” mayor, essentially as a result of a coup d’etat.


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Found guilty of treason, sentenced to death and shot by a firing squad at the age of 49, Edith Cavell’s courage was heavily punished in her lifetime. The nurse used the Red Cross hospital she was working at to save the lives of soldiers from both sides of the First World War, without any discrimination, as well as smuggling over 200 Allied soldiers from Belgium, famously saying ‘I can’t stop while there are lives to be saved’.


Discussion

Homicide is the most severe health outcome of violence against women. Findings from this study of female homicides from NVDRS during 2003&ndash2014 indicate that young women, particularly racial/ethnic minority women, were disproportionately affected. Across all racial/ethnic groups of women, over half of female homicides for which circumstances were known were IPV-related, with >90% of these women being killed by their current or former intimate partner.

Strategies to prevent IPV-related homicides range from protecting women from immediate harm and intervening in current IPV, to developing and implementing programs and policies to prevent IPV from occurring (5). IPV lethality risk assessments conducted by first responders have shown high sensitivity in identifying victims at risk for future violence and homicide (6). These assessments might be used to facilitate immediate safety planning and to connect women with other services, such as crisis intervention and counseling, housing, medical and legal advocacy, and access to other community resources (6). State statutes limiting access to firearms for persons under a domestic violence restraining order can serve as another preventive measure associated with reduced risk for intimate partner homicide and firearm intimate partner homicide (7). Approximately one in 10 victims of IPV-related homicide experienced some form of violence in the preceding month, which could have provided opportunities for intervention. Bystander programs, such as Green Dot, ¶ teach participants how to recognize situations or behaviors that might become violent and safely and effectively intervene to reduce the likelihood of assault (8). In health care settings, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening women of childbearing age for IPV and referring women who screen positive for intervention services.** Approximately 15% of female homicide victims of reproductive age (18&ndash44 years) were pregnant or postpartum, which might or might not be higher than estimates in the general U.S. female population, requiring further examination.

Approximately 40% of non-Hispanic black, AI/AN, and Hispanic female homicide victims were aged 18&ndash29 years. Argument and jealousy were common precipitating factors for IPV-related homicides. Teaching safe and healthy relationship skills is an important primary prevention strategy with evidence of effectiveness in reducing IPV by helping young persons manage emotions and relationship conflicts and improve their problem-solving and communication skills (5). Preventing IPV also requires addressing the community- and system-level factors that increase the risk for IPV neighborhoods with high disorder, disadvantage, and poverty, and low social cohesion are associated with increased risk of IPV (5), and underlying health inequities caused by barriers in language, geography, and cultural familiarity might contribute to homicides, particularly among racial/ethnic minority women (9).

The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, NVDRS data are available from a limited number of states and are therefore not nationally representative. Second, race/ethnicity data on death certificates might be misclassified, particularly for Hispanics, A/PI, and AI/AN (10). Third, the female homicide victims in this dataset were more likely to be never married or single and less likely to have attended college than the general U.S. female population &dagger&dagger although this is likely attributable to the relatively younger age distribution of homicide victims in general, §§ this requires further examination. Fourth, not all homicide cases include detailed suspect information in this analysis, 85.3% of cases included information on the suspect. Finally, information about male corollary victims of IPV-related homicide (i.e., other deaths associated with IPV, including male victims who were not the intimate partner) were not included in this analysis. Therefore, the full scope of IPV-related homicides involving women is not captured.

The racial/ethnic differences in female homicide underscore the importance of targeting prevention and intervention efforts to populations at disproportionately high risk. Addressing violence will require an integrated response that considers the influence of larger community and societal factors that make violence more likely to occur.

Acknowledgments

Linda Dahlberg, PhD, Keming Yuan, MS, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.


How General Motors Was Really Saved: The Untold True Story Of The Most Important Bankruptcy In U.S. History

Editor's Note: Lots of people--including President Obama--have trumpeted their role in the success of the government-backed turnaround plan that saved General Motors, the most important industrial company in the history of the United States.

But on the fifth anniversary of the crisis, Forbes presents an exclusive, unprecedented look at what really happened during GM's darkest days, how a tiny band of corporate outsiders and turnaround experts convened in Detroit and hatched a radical plan that ultimately set the foundation for the salvation of the company.

Author Jay Alix, one of the most respected experts on corporate bankruptcy in America, was the architect of that plan, and now, for the first time, he reveals How General Motors Was Really Saved.

By Jay Alix

For months the news was horrific, a pounding beat of warm-up obituaries for what once had been America's greatest and most influential corporation: General Motors. At death's door or already in the graveyard were Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch, AIG and Citibank. The mood was apocalyptic.

With car sales in a free fall from the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression, GM was losing billions and running out of cash. By the time the company closed its books on 2008 it would be in the red by a staggering $30.9 billion. Chief executive Rick Wagoner led the auto delegation in Washington seeking government funding to save the industry and keep GM out of bankruptcy.

Five years later, after an unprecedented government equity investment, GM is thriving and the Treasury plans to sell its remaining stake in the coming months. With countless articles and books now written about the GM restructuring and turnaround--not to mention three years of trumpeting by the Obama Administration taking full credit for the turnaround's success--the most startling aspect of the prevailing narrative is that the core of how the restructuring really happened, inside GM, is yet to be fully told.

In the popular version of the company's turnaround story, as GM teetered toward liquidation in 2009, an Obama-appointed SWAT team, led by financier Steven Rattner, swept in and hatched a radical plan: Through a novel use of the bankruptcy code they would save the company by segregating and spinning out its valuable assets, while Washington furnished billions in taxpayer funds to make sure the company was viable.

The real GM turnaround story, significant in saving the auto industry and the economy, is contrary to the one that has been published. In fact, the plan that was developed, implemented and then funded by the government was devised inside GM well before President Obama took office. In what follows, the inside story of this historic chapter in American business unfolds, laying bare the key facts.

GM's extraordinary turnaround began long before Wagoner went to Washington in search of a massive loan to keep GM alive. My involvement in that story began in GM's darkest days, five years ago on Sunday, Nov. 23, 2008, when I visited Wagoner at his home that morning, presenting a novel plan to save General Motors.

As a consultant with expertise in restructurings and turnarounds, I had completed a half-dozen assignments at GM over the years. I had worked with Wagoner in 1992 when he became chief financial officer. I was asked to come in for a two-year stint as CEO of GM's National Car Rental, the first time GM had recruited an outsider to lead a turnaround in one of its subsidiaries.

By 2008 I had over 20 years of experience with the auto industry and almost 30 years of working on turnarounds. But for the past eight years I had backed away from business and my firm, AlixPartners, to care for my daughters after the death of my wife. I was essentially "retired." But GM's enveloping crisis and my friendship with Wagoner would bring me out.

Early on that November Sunday I called Wagoner at his home in a Detroit suburb. I asked to see him right away, explaining that I had a new idea that could help save the company.

Three hours later I walked through his front door and into his family room. I knew Wagoner believed GM could not survive a bankruptcy. Studies showed consumer confidence would crash. No one would buy a car from a company that was bankrupt. However, what I knew about the economic crisis and GM's rapidly deteriorating liquidity position told me the company had no choice but to prepare for a bankruptcy.

Yet I agreed with Wagoner. For a global company as big and complex as GM, a "normal" bankruptcy would tie up the company's affairs for years, driving away customers, resulting in a tumultuous liquidation. It had happened to other companies a fraction of GM's size. It would mean the end of GM.

"I don't think the company will survive a bankruptcy," he told me. "And no one has shown me a plan that would allow it to survive a bankruptcy."

"Filing bankruptcy may be inevitable, Rick. But it doesn't have to be a company-killing bankruptcy," I said. "I think we can create a unique strategy that allows GM to survive bankruptcy."

To be sure, my idea, sketched out on a few pages, was provocative. I knew as I pitched it to Wagoner that it might raise eyebrows, if not outright objection, from others who believed their plans would be safer.

In short, I proposed that GM split into two very separate parts before filing: "NewCo," a new company with a clean balance sheet, taking on GM's best brands and operations and "OldCo," the leftover GM with most of the liabilities. All of the operational restructuring to make the new company profitable would also occur before a bankruptcy filing so GM could go through bankruptcy in a matter of days--not months or years with creditors and other litigants fighting over the corporate carcass while the revenue line crashes.

Seeking funding from the government, or any source, we would use Bankruptcy Code Section 363, which allows a company to sell assets under a court-approved sale. Typically, 363 is used to sell specific assets, from a chair and desk to a factory or division, but not the entire stand-alone company. Under this strategy GM could postpone filing a plan of reorganization and a disclosure statement, which consume months and fuel a blizzard of litigation while market share and enterprise value bleed away.

Wagoner listened, challenging every assumption. After discussing it with board members, Rick asked me to come to GM and work on the plan, one of several alternatives GM would consider. I volunteered to help GM on a pro bono basis. But what I could never anticipate was how deep and strong the opposition to my plan would ultimately be.

On Tuesday, Dec. 2, I pulled into GM's Detroit headquarters at 7 a.m. after most of the company's executives had already arrived for work. I was given a small cubicle and conference room on the 38th floor, a spacious but empty place that held GM's corporate boardroom and a warren of cubicles reserved for visiting executives and board members.

Each day I would be the sole person who got off the elevator on 38, one floor down from where Wagoner and his team worked. It was eerie and quiet, the main wall lined with large oil paintings of GM's past chairmen. I'd walk past those gilded frames daily, feeling the full weight of their gaze, reminded of the history and past glory of what had been the most powerful corporation on earth.

Spending 18 hours a day digging through the numbers in GM's filings, I began working in greater detail on the outlines of the plan and making some assumptions on what assets should be transferred to NewCo and what would stay in OldCo, which I dubbed Motors Liquidation. There were thousands of crucial questions that had to be asked and answered with management: Which brands and factories would survive? Which ones would the company have to give up? What would be the endgame strategy? What would be the enterprise value of NewCo? The liquidation value of OldCo?

Wagoner and COO Fritz Henderson were developing three alternative plans. First, they hoped to avoid bankruptcy altogether, believing the government would provide enough funding to bring GM through the crisis. At least two cabinet members in the Bush Administration and others had provided assurances to Rick and board members that government help would be forthcoming.

Second was a "prepackaged" bankruptcy plan being developed by general counsel Robert Osborne with Harvey R. Miller, the dean of the bankruptcy bar and senior partner at Weil, Gotshal & Manges. Under this plan, GM would prepare a reorganization in cooperation with its bond creditors that would take effect once the company went into a Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The goal of a so-called prepack is to shorten and simplify the bankruptcy process.

Miller commanded great respect in bankruptcy circles and in the GM boardroom, and for good reason. At the age of 75 Miller was the only attorney in the country who had successfully dealt with as many high-profile bankruptcies. Miller was already in the middle of the largest corporate liquidation ever, at Lehman Brothers.

And third was the NewCo plan, based on years of ?experience at AlixPartners, where we had a major role in 50 of the 180 largest bankruptcies over $1 billion in the past 15 years. GM had also retained Martin Bienenstock, the restructuring and corporate governance leader from Dewey & LeBoeuf, to help develop the NewCo plan as well.

Inside and outside GM, the pressures mounted. Each day the company lost more money and got closer to running out of cash. In Washington several prominent politicians began calling for Wagoner's resignation. On Dec. 7 Senator Chris Dodd, the Connecticut Democrat, told Face the Nation' s Bob Schieffer that Wagoner had to move on.

The next day I went to see Wagoner to offer encouragement and advice. It is not unusual for a CEO to lose his job when his company is forced into bankruptcy and a major restructuring. I'd seen this play out many times before and learned the boss should never volunteer his resignation without first putting in place the things that would help the organization survive. I wanted to help fortify Rick's resolve and keep us all focused on the endgame.

From my perspective Wagoner had been unfairly treated by many politicians and the media. Since taking over as CEO in 2000, working closely with Fritz and vice chairman Bob Lutz, Rick orchestrated large, dramatic changes at the company. They closed GM's quality, productivity and fuel-economy gaps with the world's best automakers, winning numerous car and truck awards. They built a highly profitable business in China, the world's biggest potential car market. They reduced the company's workforce by 143,000 employees, to 243,000. They reached a historic agreement with the UAW that cut in half hourly pay for new employees and significantly scaled back the traditional retiree benefit packages that had been crippling the company, while also funding over $100 billion in unfunded retiree obligations. And he was able to accomplish all these changes without causing massive disruptions among GM's dealers or major strikes with the unions.

Ultimately, those structural changes positioned the company not only to survive but also to bring about the extraordinary turnaround. But now, with the economy and the company in free fall, all of that hard work seemed to be forgotten.

It was late in the day on Dec. 8, around 5:30 p.m., when I walked into Wagoner's office.

"Rick, do not resign or even offer to resign," I told him. "Later you may have to fall on your sword to get the funding deal done with the government, but don't do it until we get the three things we need. If you're going to be killed on the battlefield, we need to make it worth it."

"And what is that exactly?" he pressed me.

"We have to get government funding of $40 billion to $50 billion. Plus, we need an agreement with the government and GM's board to do the NewCo plan. And we must put a qualified successor in place. It must be Fritz and not some government guy. It's going to be painful for you, but you've got to stay on the horse until we get all three."

Wagoner was already there. He had no intention of resigning and was determined to complete his mission. I gave him a bear hug, letting him know he had my full support.

When we gathered for a telephonic board meeting on Dec. 15, the mood was urgent, the tension high. Only two weeks after arriving at GM I was about to present the plan to the board of directors in a conference room outside Wagoner's office. Also on the phone were the company's lawyers and investment bankers.

A Spiderphone was in the middle of the table for what would be a historic meeting of the board. Only three days earlier the Senate had abandoned negotiations to provide funding for the auto industry. Suddenly a free-fall bankruptcy within days loomed large. Consideration of the NewCo plan, now refined with the help of chief financial officer Ray Young and other senior finance staffers, took on greater urgency as we were just two weeks away from running out of cash.

"I know the company has many lawyers and bankers working on other approaches," I said. "I know many of the people doing the work, and I've worked with many of them over the years. But I have an alternative strategy for the board's consideration. I suspect there might be some controversy over it, but I believe this could be lifesaving for General Motors."

After carefully laying out the details and time sequence of the NewCo plan, I drew to a close.

"Well," one director asked over the phone system, "I want to hear what Harvey Miller has to say about this. Is there a precedent for this, Mr. Miller?"

Miller's deep baritone voice filled the room, pointing out that the idea was unorthodox and lacked precedence.

Other attorneys chimed in, claiming the plan oversimplified the situation and there would be major problems with it. Yet another added that this would not be viewed well by the court and doubted any judge would allow it. Collectively, they characterized it as a long shot, discouraging the directors from thinking the plan could ever succeed.

Hearing all the disapproving words amplified from speakers in the ceiling, I felt ambushed by general counsel Osborne, who was strongly advocating for a prepackaged bankruptcy strategy, which he believed was the only way to go. Unbeknownst to me he had previously proposed the idea to GM's board, naively believing GM could complete a prepack bankruptcy in 30 days.

GM's most senior leaders had been working with me on the NewCo plan around the clock. I felt strongly this alternative approach could succeed, and I knew that any other type of Chapter 11 strategy would kill vehicle sales and lead to the demise of GM. Now it seemed as if the NewCo plan could be dead on arrival.

"If the attorneys feel this is a waste of time and corporate resources, I don't know why we would pursue this," stated another director.

A chilling silence descended upon the room, broken by Kent Kresa, the former CEO of Northrop Grumman and a GM board member since 2003.

"I understand this has some risk attached to it, but we're in a very risky state right now," he said. "And I understand it may even be unusual and unprecedented. But it's certainly creative, and quite frankly, it's the most innovative idea we've heard so far that has real potential in it. I think it deserves further consideration and development."

Rick then addressed another lawyer on the call, Martin Bienenstock.

"Well, I've actually studied the problem, too, and there's a way for this to work," said Bienenstock. "Almost all bankruptcies are unique and the Code does allow for the transfer of assets. I can't imagine a judge taking on this problem and not wanting to solve it. We've done a preliminary analysis, and it's not as crazy as it sounds. It's unique and compelling."

"Okay, we've heard both sides of it," Rick said after others spoke, smartly bringing the debate to a reasonable close. "I suggest we continue working to develop both the prepack plan and the NewCo option, while seeking the funding to avoid Chapter 11 if at all possible."

The meeting adjourned without a vote. I left the room disappointed to hear Osborne's legal chorus so dead set against NewCo and surprised their remarks had stopped all real discussion of the plan. But I also was relieved the plan was not completely dead, at least not yet.

Over the next weeks I worked closely with Bienenstock, assistant general counsel Mike Millikin, Al Koch of AlixPartners and GM senior vice president John Smith on the NewCo plan. We huddled dozens of times with Wagoner and Henderson to work out which brands GM would ultimately have to give up (Hummer, Saturn, Saab and Pontiac) and which ones it would keep (Chevrolet, Cadillac, GMC and Buick). Informed debate and deep analysis of structural costs led to decisions about projects, factories, brands and countries.

On Sunday afternoon, Mar. 29, Wagoner called me. It was a call I had hoped would never come--but here it was.

"Jay," he said, "I wanted to give you a heads-up. The Administration wants me to step aside. The President is going to hold a press conference tomorrow morning."

Wagoner told me Henderson would be named CEO.

"What about the bankruptcy?" I asked.

"They're enamored with the 363 NewCo plan. They seem bound and determined to make us file Chapter 11 and do NewCo. . This is really tough," he said.

"I'm so sorry," I said, pausing, "but . you got the money. They're doing the NewCo plan, and Fritz is your successor. . You've succeeded. You got the three things."

Rick responded with resigned acknowledgment, then said, "Please help Fritz in any way you can," before hanging up.

Rick's personal sacrifice was not in vain. Months of hard work had paid off. The assets and liabilities had been selected. The NewCo legal entities and $45 billion tax-loss strategy had been developed. The strategy I pitched to Wagoner in his living room four and a half months earlier was the plan chosen by Team Auto in a meeting on Apr. 3, 2009 in Washington. Treasury agreed to fully fund NewCo with equity, and thus it became the chosen path to save the company.

By late April NewCo implementation was well under way. The bankruptcy filing would occur in New York within weeks. My partner, Al Koch of AlixPartners, would become the chief restructuring officer running OldCo, now officially named Motors Liquidation, Inc. In my notes, I jotted: "My work is finished . impact from this day forward will be negligible. . Treasury's in control. Time to get back to my girls."

On June 1, 2009 General Motors filed for bankruptcy in New York, with $82 billion in assets and $173 billion in liabilities. It was the largest industrial bankruptcy in history. Harvey Miller and his team masterfully defended and guided the NewCo plan through the bankruptcy court, successfully making it their own. New GM exited bankruptcy protection on July 10, 2009--in a mere 40 days, as designed. Fritz called and thanked me.

There would be many other twists and turns to GM's narrative, but the company got its fresh start using the NewCo plan, and the industry was saved with government funding from both Presidents Bush and Obama. In March 2009 President Obama cited a "failure of leadership" as his reason for forcing out Wagoner. In fact, it was Wagoner's exercise of leadership through years of wrenching change and then simultaneously seeking government funding while developing three restructuring plans that put GM in position to survive the worst economic collapse since the Great Depression and complete its turnaround, which, ironically, became a key campaign issue in the reelection of Barack Obama in 2012.


The General Assembly, in its resolution A/RES/65/271 of 7 April 2011, declared 12 April as the International Day of Human Space Flight “to celebrate each year at the international level the beginning of the space era for mankind, reaffirming the important contribution of space science and technology in achieving sustainable development goals and increasing the well-being of States and peoples, as well as ensuring the realization of their aspiration to maintain outer space for peaceful purposes.”

12 April 1961 was the date of the first human space flight, carried out by Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet citizen. This historic event opened the way for space exploration for the benefit of all humanity.

The General Assembly expressed its deep conviction of the common interest of mankind in promoting and expanding the exploration and use of outer space, as the province of all mankind, for peaceful purposes and in continuing efforts to extend to all States the benefits derived there from.

The Voyager Golden Record: A reminder that we are all connected

The Voyager Golden Record shot into space in 1977 with a message from humanity to the cosmos – and decades later, it stands as a reminder that we are all connected. The United Nations displays a replica of the Golden Record at its Headquarters, and shares a deep connection to the process of creating it. A NASA committee asked the UN to provide materials to include on the playlist, and the first words on the Record itself are those of the then-UN Secretary-General expressing hope for peace and friendship with whoever discovers and plays it. Bill Nye “The Science Guy,” CEO of the Planetary Society, walks viewers through how to decipher the Golden Record, its significance today, and how reverence for the universe can inspire action for our planet. This aligns with the ongoing work of the United Nations to promote international cooperation in the peaceful use and exploration of space. The Director of the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs, Simonetta Di Pippo, explains the significance of the Golden Record in our world now. “The undertaking of the Voyager project reminds us of who we are, where we came from, and that we should treat each other with care.”

Background

On 4 October 1957 the first human-made Earth satellite Sputnik I was launched into outer space, thus opening the way for space exploration. On 12 April 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth, opening a new chapter of human endeavour in outer space.

The Declaration further recalls “the amazing history of human presence in outer space and the remarkable achievements since the first human spaceflight, in particular Valentina Tereshkova becoming the first woman to orbit the Earth on 16 June 1963, Neil Armstrong becoming the first human to set foot upon the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969, and the docking of the Apollo and Soyuz spacecrafts on 17 July 1975, being the first international human mission in space, and recall that for the past decade humanity has maintained a multinational permanent human presence in outer space aboard the International Space Station.”

UN and Space

From the very beginning of the Space Age, the United Nations recognized that outer space added a new dimension to humanity's existence. The United Nations family strives continuously to utilize the unique benefits of outer space for the betterment of all humankind.

Recognizing the common interest of humankind in outer space and seeking to answer questions on how outer space can help benefit the people's of Earth, the General Asssembly adopted its first resolution related to outer space, resolution 1348 (XIII) entitled "Question of the Peaceful Use of Outer Space".

Today, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is the United Nations office responsible for promoting international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space. UNOOSA serves as the secretariat for the General Assembly's only committee dealing exclusively with international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space: the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space(COPUOS).

UNOOSA is also responsible for implementing the Secretary-General's responsibilities under international space law and maintaining the United Nations Register of Objects Launched into Outer Space.

Our Planet Earth

In an awestruck manner, seventeen astronauts and cosmonauts from ten countries describe their perceptions of Earth as seen from space. Watch the documentary produced in July 1990.


July 10, 2014 Day 172 of the Sixth Year - History

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Episode 95 Trayvon Martin tragedy John Edwards denies prostitute claims Kim Kardashian gets flour bombed Whitney Houston's autopsy revealed Third graders having oral sex 00:32:00 Maccorley Mathieu no Trayvon Martin,John Edwards,Kim Kardashian,Whitney Houston,Third graders having oral sex Trayvon Martin tragedy John Edwards denies prostitute claims Kim Kardashian gets flour bombed Whitney Houston's autopsy revealed Third graders having oral


What are the leading causes of death in the US?

Around 74% of all deaths in the United States occur as a result of 10 causes. Over the past 5 years, the main causes of death in the U.S. have remained fairly consistent.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were 2,813,503 registered deaths in the United States in 2017.

The age-adjusted death rate, which accounts for the aging population, is 731.9 deaths per 100,000 people in the U.S. This is an increase of 0.4% over 2016’s death rate.

However, the CDC advise that using age-adjusted rates is inaccurate for ranking causes of death.

All figures and percentages provided here come from the most recent data from the CDC, collected in 2017.

In this article, we expand on each of the leading causes of death and provide links to more detailed information on each condition. We also rank the causes according to the number of deaths per condition and their percentage share of the overall registered death count in the U.S.

Share on Pinterest Many of the top 10 causes of death are preventable through lifestyle changes and regular checkups.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. This is the case in the U.S. and worldwide. More than half of all people who die due to heart disease are men.

Medical professionals use the term heart disease to describe several conditions. Many of these conditions relate to the buildup of plaque in the walls of the arteries.

As the plaque develops, the arteries narrow. This makes it difficult for blood to flow around the body and increases the risk of heart attack or stroke. It can also give rise to angina, arrythmias, and heart failure.

To reduce the risk of dying from heart disease, a person can protect their heart health by adopting a healthful diet and getting regular exercise.

Being able to recognize the symptoms of a heart attack can also help people get prompt medical treatment and potentially save their lives.

Cancer occurs when cells do not die at the normal point in their life cycle. If a person’s body cannot control the spread of these cells, they can interfere with essential, life-sustaining systems and possibly lead to death.

Everyone has some degree of risk, but for most cancers, the risk will increase with age. Some people have a higher or lower risk due to differences in exposure to carcinogens, such as from smoking or exposure to chemical pollutants. Genetic factors also play a strong role in cancer’s development.

Race and sex also play a role in a person’s risk of developing cancer, depending on the type. That said, lung cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women.

However, researchers are always taking steps to advance cancer treatment. In fact, the death rate from all cancers in the U.S. has dropped by 26% since 1991.

Estimated cancer-related deaths for 2019

The American Cancer Society estimate how many people will die from certain types of cancer in 2019.

According to them, the leading causes of death from cancer for males will be:

  • Lung and bronchus cancer: 76,650 deaths
  • Prostate cancer: 31,620 deaths
  • Colorectal cancer: 27,640 deaths

The leading causes of death from cancer for females will be:

  • Lung and bronchus cancer: 66,020 deaths
  • Breast cancer: 41,760 deaths
  • Colorectal cancer: 23,380 deaths

Accidents, or unintentional injuries, are the 4th leading cause of death in the U.S. overall, and the leading cause of death for those aged 1–44.

Possible prevention measures

Accidents are unintentional and usually unavoidable. However, there are many ways to reduce the risk of accidental injury and death.

Some key components of accident prevention include focusing on road and workplace safety, such as using a seatbelt and never driving or operating heavy machinery while under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

Chronic lower respiratory disease refers to a group of lung conditions that block the airflow and cause breathing-related issues. These diseases include:

Smoking drastically increases a person’s risk of developing these conditions.

Cerebrovascular diseases develop due to problems with the blood vessels that supply the brain.

Four of the most common cerebrovascular diseases are:

Every year, more than 795,000 people in the U.S. have a stroke. The risk of stroke varies with race, ethnicity, and age.

The highest death rates from stroke in the U.S. occur in the Southeast.

Dementia refers to a group of conditions that cause a decline in cognitive function. This affects a person’s ability to perform everyday activities.

Damage to the nerve cells in the brain causes dementia. As a result of the damage, neurons can no longer function normally and may die. This, in turn, can lead to changes in memory, behavior, and the ability to think clearly.

Alzheimer’s disease is just one type of dementia. Another type, called vascular dementia, can cause similar symptoms but instead results from changes to blood flow to the brain.

For people with Alzheimer’s disease, neuron damage and death eventually impair their ability to perform essential actions, such as walking and swallowing.

People in the final stages of this condition may not be able to leave their bed and may require around the clock care. Alzheimer’s is ultimately fatal.

In the U.S., an estimated 5.8 million people currently have Alzheimer’s disease, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. This figure may rise to 14 million people by 2050 as life expectancy continues to increase.

Alzheimer’s is also the only cause of death in the top 10 that medical experts cannot cure, prevent, or slow down.

Diabetes is a condition wherein the body can no longer control blood glucose, which leads to dangerously high levels of blood glucose. This is called hyperglycemia.

Persistent hyperglycemia can damage the body’s tissues, including those in the nerves, blood vessels, and eyes.

The body converts most of the food people eat into glucose, a simple sugar, which it can then use for energy. The pancreas, an organ near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to move glucose from the bloodstream into the cells.

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

The bodies of people with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin at all, so these people need to supplement their supply. The bodies of people with type 2 diabetes cannot use insulin effectively.

However, it is possible to control the risk of type 2 diabetes with careful dietary management and regular exercise.

Diabetes can cause serious health complications, including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and the need for amputation of the lower extremities.

Influenza, or flu, is a highly contagious viral infection. It is one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season.

Flu spreads easily from person to person, usually when someone who carries the virus coughs or sneezes.

A person can have the flu more than once, as many different strains of the virus can cause infection. They may belong to one of three different influenza families: A, B or C.

Type A viruses tend to affect adults more severely , while type B viruses most often cause health problems in children. Type C viruses are fairly uncommon.

Pneumonia, a serious condition that causes inflammation of the lungs, can cause complications in people who have the flu.

Pneumonia causes the air sacs in the lungs to fill with pus and other fluids, preventing oxygen from reaching the bloodstream. If there is too little oxygen in the blood, the body’s cells cannot function. This can be fatal.

Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis are all conditions that affect the kidneys.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes kidney damage. Damaged kidneys cannot filter blood as well as healthy kidneys. As a result of this, waste from the blood remains in the body and may lead to other health problems.

Around 30 million people in the U.S. may have CKD to some degree. Being over 60 years old increases the risk of CKD, as does having a family history of it. High blood pressure and diabetes are most likely to cause the CKD.

CKD develops in stages, and it does not usually cause symptoms until its most advanced stage. So, undergoing regular screenings can help reduce a person’s risk of dying from kidney disease.

When a person dies by suicide, they may have lived with a mental health condition — such as depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder — for a long time.

However, not all people who attempt suicide or die by it have these conditions.

Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among people aged 10-34 years.

Establishing a strong support network, taking appropriate medications, and seeking therapy may help reduce the risk of suicide.

How do I bring down my overall risk of death?

Lifestyle habits will most likely have the greatest impact on a person’s risk of developing some of these conditions.

Eating healthful foods in optimal proportions, sleeping and exercising regularly, drinking in moderation, avoiding tobacco products and other drugs, and building healthy and positive relationships will all work to improve a person’s quality of life and reduce their risk of premature death.

Also, establishing an ongoing relationship with a doctor and undergoing regular screenings for conditions that run in the family can aid prompt treatment if these conditions do develop.

Vincent J. Tavella, MPH Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.


10 Great American Achievements

On July 16, 1969, Apollo 11 blasted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This spacecraft would take 3 American astronauts to the Moon, landing 2 on its surface and return all 3 safely to Earth, less than a decade after the first manned space flight. The US and Americans have achieved many great things, and here we list 10 of them. Not all significant inventions or achievements are necessarily for humanitarian purposes, some of them are for war. Some, like DDT and the polio vaccines saved millions of lives. We list 10 that we think you will find interesting, and invite you to let us know what other American accomplishments we should have listed. ( America bashers beware! This list is by definition US-centric.)

Digging Deeper

10. The Internet, circa 1985.

Although no official opening date exists, the Internet was an American concept actually put forth by the US Government in the 1960’s, interlinking thousands of public and private computer and communication systems, going into effect in the mid-1980’s. During the first few years, almost all Internet use was by government and academic users, with the 1990’s seeing enormous expansion in use by businesses and private individuals. About 100 times more people use the Internet today than in 1995 and well over 90% of US classrooms have Internet access. Al Gore did not invent the Internet, nor did he say he did, but he and others were advocates that made it happen. Thanks, Al. Here are 10 Other ways the Internet has changed our lives.

9. Cell Phones, 1973.

First shown to the world in 1973 by American television and radio manufacturer, Motorola, the cell phone has become a world wide device that makes communications in most civilized places oh so easy. It is hard to even remember what teenagers did before this invention.

8. Machine Guns, 1862, 1884.

Dr. Gatling invented his hand cranked multi-barrel gun in time for limited use during the Civil War, and his guns were still in service until 1911. Hiram Maxim, born in Maine, immigrated to England at age 41 and perfected his automatic machine gun, the first modern such weapon, which was used from then until the 1950’s. The Maxim Gun is the basis for other machine guns that have followed.

7. Panama Canal, 1914.

A project that dwarfed the problems in building the Suez Canal (or any other canal), the US accomplished what the French could not, and provided easy access between the Atlantic and Pacific. Facing incredible engineering obstacles and especially disease, this US achievement accommodates close to 15,000 ships passing through per year and is approaching its millionth customer. The canal and canal zone were turned over to Panama on December 31, 1999. Modifications to accommodate much larger ships are being undertaken at this time.

6. Modern Submarine, 1900.

Invented by John Holland, an Irish-American who sold his idea to the US Navy, which commissioned their first submarine, the USS Holland in 1900. Other attempts at undersea craft go back a few hundred years, including the US Turtle and the CSS Hunley , but these were limited range hand powered craft. In the 19th Century attempts were made at producing steam powered subs, but no practical model appeared until Holland invented a sub that ran on a gasoline internal combustion engine on the surface and on powerful electric batteries and motors under water. Unfortunately, Holland was allowed to sell his designs to other countries and the US Navy failed at a big chance to have a monopoly on modern submarines.

5. Trans-Oceanic Cable Communication, 1858.

American Cyrus West Field masterminded the massive project of laying a telegraph cable from North America to Europe, producing the first trans-Atlantic electronic communication, featuring a message between Queen Victoria (United Kingdom) and President Buchanan (US). An improved version was completed in 1866, and later telephone and other electronic data transmission cables were laid across other oceans as well as the Atlantic. Before this project, communication from Europe to North America took 10 days by boat, but with the cable it would take only a few minutes.

4. First Nuclear Reactor, 1942.

Built in Chicago as part of the Manhattan Project , Chicago Pile-1 became the first man-made nuclear reactor with a controllable self-sustaining nuclear reaction. This led to the production of nuclear electricity producing plants, a potential source of energy for human-kind without burning fossil fuels, if only we could design and supervise enough safety measures into such plants. ( Note: Scientists from other countries contributed to this project, but there is a reason it was done in the US, where money, safety, and freedom made it possible.)

3. Model T Ford, 1908.

Built from 1908 to 1927 this was not the first practical car, but it was the first mass produced practical car that normal people could afford, costing as low as $260. At one point in the 1920’s, almost half the cars in the world were Model T Fords, truly the car that put the masses behind the steering wheel. 15 million were built.

2. First in Flight, 1903.

Many inventors around the world were working on controlled, powered, manned flight projects, but the Wright brothers from Ohio were the first to make it reality. Unfortunately, they also invented the airplane crash fatality.

1. Men on the Moon, 1969.

The US moon landing in 1969 and subsequent lunar forays made the US not only the first to the moon, but also the only country ever to accomplish a manned moon landing. The Apollo program also provided some really neat photography.

Question for students (and subscribers): What other American accomplishments should we have listed? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.

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Historical Evidence

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The featured image in this article, a photograph by James L. Long of the Apollo 11 liftoff, was originally posted to Flickr by State Library and Archives of Florida at https://flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/8678167050. It was reviewed on 23 August 2016 by FlickreviewR and was confirmed to be licensed under the terms of the No known copyright restrictions. This work is from the Florida Memory Project hosted at the State Archive of Florida, and is released to the public domain in the United States under the terms of Section 257.35(6), Florida Statutes.

About Author

Major Dan is a retired veteran of the United States Marine Corps. He served during the Cold War and has traveled to many countries around the world. Prior to his military service, he graduated from Cleveland State University, having majored in sociology. Following his military service, he worked as a police officer eventually earning the rank of captain prior to his retirement.


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